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Ver el documento (formato PDF)   Kleiman, Laura Elena.  "Mineralogía y petrología del volcanismo permo-triásico del bloque de San Rafael en el área de Sierra Pintada, Provincia de Mendoza y su relación con las mineralizaciones de uranio."  (1999)
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
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Abstract:
The southern portion of South America formed part of the supercontinent of Gondwana during most of the Paleozoic, and a broad magmatic belt was active in the west margin in the Carboniferous and Permo-Triassic. In the San Rafael Massif, Mendoza, Argentina a foreland basin developed behind the Carboniferous magmatic arc, which resulted in a thick accumulation of marine and continental sediments. Later, these sediments (El Imperial Formation) were deformed during the San Rafael orogenic phase which was related to an eastward migration of the arc in the Early Permian. Volcanism is Permo-Triassic and postdates the deformation of the El Imperial deposits, but the early volcanics and associated sediments (Cochicó Group) were synchronous with a compressive and/or transpressive stress regime, related to the San Rafael orogenic phase, indicating that subduction continued to the west. The volcanic sequences in the San Rafael Massif form part of the Choiyoi magmatic province. Field observations, in conjuction with mineralogy, petrology, major, trace and REE element data, indicate that two different suites can be distinguished within the Choiyoi, termed in here lower and upper Sections. The lower Section (Early Permian) comprises andesites, and dacitic to low-silica rhyolitic ignimbrites with associated sediments (Cochicó Group) and represents the products of the subduction-related magmatic arc. The upper Section (Early Permian- Early Triassic) which is mainly composed of rhyolitic ignimbrites (Agua de los Burros Formation), andesitic dyke intrusions (Quebrada del Pimiento Formation), caldera-related high-silica rhyolitic ignimbrites and lava flows, dacitic to rhyolitic subvolcanic bodies, some with garnet and topaz, and mildly alkalic basaltic andesites (Cerro Carrizalito Formation). This change in the character of volcanism is correlated with a shift from the compressive tectonic style to a progressive extensional regime, and is believed to represent the transition between Late Paleozoic subduction and Triassic rifting. A third suite of Middle Triassic age (Puesto Viejo Formation) could also be distinguished. It is bimodal, comprises basaltic andesites, basalts and rhyolitic ignimbrites and would correspond to the peak of extension (rift ?) in the area. Dacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites of the subduction-related Cochicó Group contain biotite as the main mafic mineral, and evolved from andesitic magmas by crystal fractionation of the observed mineralogy (Toba Vieja Gorda Member, Yacimiento Los Reyunos Formation). They are homogeneous sequences that could be considered as “monotonous intermediates” (Hildreth, 1981). Disequilibrium textures suggest that magma mixing and/or lower crust contamination were important processes. High-silica rhyolites of the upper Section are similar to bimodal aluminous rhyolites and to topaz rhyolites. They contain biotites, arnphiboles and pyroxenes suggesting lower pressures, higher temperatures and dryer conditions of crystallization. Rhyolites from different volcanic centers show distinctive geochemical patterns. Besides, some textures suggest magma mixing processes and zoned magma chambers. They show low composition gradients suggesting crystal fractionation processes. The crust was thinned, magma Chambers were emplaced at higher crustal levels and crustal contamination and/ or melting seems to be a main process. They are transitional between subduction and continental intraplate conditions. Andesitic dykes emplaced in tensional normal faults (Quebrada del Pimiento Formation) can record the beginning of extension in the Early-Late Permian. These andesitic dykes could probably be the product of hibridization of a basaltic underplate and the lower crust. Extension could eventually be related to changes in the subduction geometry due to diminishing rates of plate motions, which finally produced the end of plate convergence. Triassic high-silica rhyolites (Puesto Viejo Formation) are also similar to bimodal aluminous rhyolites, no mafic minerals were observed, and they seem to be genetically unrelated to spatially associated basalts and andesites. The rhyolites would represent crustal melts which were produced by heating due to mafic magmas emplaced at the base of the crust, whereas the basalts and andesites are the product of this basaltic “underplating” that fractionated and/or interacted with the crust. The relationship between silicic volcanic rocks (mainly volcaniclastic) and uranium mineralizations has been known for many years, because uranium concentrates in felsic igneous rocks, due to its highly incompatible character. These rocks were widely recognized as source rocks through devitrification processes of volcanic glass. In recent years, however, their importance as potential hosts, mainly of those rocks related to a caldera cycle, was also evaluated: In order to be a potential host, post-magmatic processes, such as long-lived hydrothennal systems, are esential for uranium remobilization and concentration within this environment. In the San Rafael Massif, the Choiyoi lower Section (Grupo Cochicó) hosts the main uranium mineralization known, at present, in Argentina: the Dr. Baulíes-Los Reyunos deposit which is emplaced in sediments (Areniscas Atigradas Member) redeposited from dacitic and low-silica rhyolitic ignimbrites (Toba Vieja Gorda Member) with very low U background (up to 3 ppm). Field, mineralogical and geochemical data in this case, points to the role of volcanism to be limited to that of source rock. Besides, this type of magma is not very suitable for yielding great amounts of U. In contrast, the composition of magmas, the tectonic setting and the presence of caldera-related volcanics in the Choiyoi upper Section are more favourable conditions for uranium mineralizations to ocurr, according to worldwide examples, and seem to be a more adequate exploration target. Mineralogical and chemical data from some known uranium mineralizations associated to these rocks (Rincón del Atuel, Pircas del Mesón) show that some hydrothermal activity was relevant in the remobilization and concentration of U. The paucity of sediments associated to the upper Section volcanics makes ignimbrites and other caldera-cycle rocks, a more favourable host.
Registro:
Título : Mineralogía y petrología del volcanismo permo-triásico del bloque de San Rafael en el área de Sierra Pintada, Provincia de Mendoza y su relación con las mineralizaciones de uranio.    
Autor : Kleiman, Laura Elena
Director : Koukharsky, Magdalena
Año : 1999
Editor : Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Filiación : Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales
Departamento de Geología
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA). Centro Atómico Ezeiza (CAE). Unidad de Actividad Geológica
Grado obtenido : Doctor en Ciencias Geológicas
Ubicación : Preservación - http://digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/gsdl-282/cgi-bin/library.cgi?a=d&c=tesis&d=Tesis_3148_Kleiman
Idioma : Español
Area Temática : Geología / Vulcanología
Geología / Petrología
Geología / Hidrogeología
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