Artículo

Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor

Abstract:

A critical review of information from ∼7000 plankton, sediment trap and surface sediment samples from the World Ocean indicates that standing stock and species richness (i.e. number of species) of polycystine radiolarians are highest in the tropics and subtropics at 0-100 m (∼1100-1400 ind. m -3), dropping sharply below 400 m (<1 to ∼250 ind. m -3). Polewards of 45°N and 45°S, highest densities (∼200-500 ind. m -3) occur at 100-400 m. In contrast with plankton samples, sediment traps yield highest radiolarian accumulation rates at the deepest layers, probably because of higher biogenic silica dissolution rates in the shallower traps. Deeper plankton and sediment trap samples yield more species than shallower ones; in polar-subpolar areas, many of these species represent in situ living populations, but in the low latitudes, they are largely represented by dead, settling individuals and by colder water species that submerge under the warm surficial layers. Staining of the protoplasm with Rose Bengal does not allow adequate discrimination of subsurface resident populations from dead or nonviable organisms settling from above. The vertical heterogeneity of radiolarian assemblages has significant implications for biogeographic and paleoecological surveys. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

Registro:

Documento: Artículo
Título:Vertical distribution patterns of Radiolaria Polycystina (Protista) in the World Ocean: Living ranges, isothermal submersion and settling shells
Autor:Boltovskoy, D.
Filiación:Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución de Buenos Aires (IEGEBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires-CONICET, Buenos Aires, 1428, Argentina
Palabras clave:abundance; diversity; isothermal submersion; plankton; Radiolaria Polycystina; sediment traps; vertical distribution; World Ocean; abundance; biomass; dissolution; global ocean; isotherm; plankton; radiolaria; range size; sediment trap; settling behavior; shell; silica; spatial variation; species diversity; species richness; submergence; vertical distribution; Polycystinea; Protista; Radiolaria (protozoans)
Año:2017
Volumen:39
Número:2
Página de inicio:330
Página de fin:349
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx003
Título revista:Journal of Plankton Research
Título revista abreviado:J. Plankton Res.
ISSN:01427873
CODEN:JPLRD
Registro:http://digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/collection/paper/document/paper_01427873_v39_n2_p330_Boltovskoy

Referencias:

  • Abelmann, A., Radiolarian flux in Antarctic waters (drake passage, powell Basin, bransfield strait (1992) Polar Biol, 12, pp. 357-372
  • Abelmann, A., Gersonde, R., Biosiliceous particle flux in the Southern ocean (1991) Mar. Chem, 35, pp. 503-536
  • Abelmann, A., Gowing, M.M., Spatial distribution pattern of living polycystine radiolarian taxa-baseline study for paleoenvironmental reconstructions in the Southern ocean (Atlantic sector (1997) Mar. Micropaleontol, 30, pp. 3-28
  • Abrantes, F., Meggers, H., Nave, S., Bollman, J., Palma, S., Sprengel, C., Henderiks, J., Spies, A., Fluxes of micro-organisms along a productivity gradient in the canary Islands region (29°N (2002) Deep-Sea Res, 49, pp. 3599-3629
  • Adkins, J.F., The role of deep ocean circulation in setting glacial climates (2013) Paleoceanography, 28, pp. 539-561
  • Adl, S.M., Simpson, A.G., Lane, C.E., Lukes, J., Bass, D., Bowser, S.S., Brown, M.W., Burki, F., The revised classification of eukaryotes (2012) J. Eukaryot. Microbiol, 59, pp. 429-493
  • Agusti, S., Gonzalez-Gordillo, J.I., Vaque, D., Estrada, M., Cerezo, M.I., Salazar, G., Gasol, J.M., Duarte, C.M., Ubiquitous healthy diatoms in the deep sea confirm deep carbon injection by the biological pump (2015) Nat. Commun, 6, pp. 1-6
  • Aita, Y., Suzuki, N., Ogane, K., Sakai, T., Bipolar distributions of Recent, and Mesozoic Radiolaria (2009) Fossils, 85, pp. 25-42
  • Alder, V.A., Boltovskoy, D., The ecology of larger microzooplankton in the weddell-scotia confluence area: Horizontal, and vertical distribution patterns (1993) J. Mar. Res, 51, pp. 323-344
  • Anderson, O.R., (1983) Radiolaria, , Springer New York
  • Beers, J.R., Stewart, G.L., Micro-zooplankton in the plankton communities of the upper waters of the Eastern tropical Pacific (1971) Deep-Sea Res, 18, pp. 861-883
  • Berg, L.S., Bipolyarnoe rasprostraneniye organizmov i lednikovaya epokha [the bioplar distribution of organisms, and the glacial period (1920) Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, 14, pp. 273-302
  • Berger, W.H., Radiolarian skeletons: Solution at depths (1968) Science, 159, pp. 1237-1238
  • Berger, W.H., Planktonic foraminifera: Differential production, and expatriation off Baja California (1970) Limnol. Oceanogr, 15, pp. 183-204
  • Berger, W.H., Biogenous deep-sea sediments: Production, preservation, and interpretation (1976) Chemical Oceanography, pp. 265-388. , Riley, J. P., and Chichester, R. (eds. Academic Press, London (UK), pp
  • Berger, W.H., Smetacek, V.S., Wefer, G., (1989) Productivity of the Ocean: Present, and Past, , Wiley, Chichester, (UK
  • Bernhard, J.M., Postmortem vital staining in benthic Foraminifera: Duration, and importance in population and distributional studies (1988) J. Foraminifer. Res, 18, pp. 143-146
  • Bernhard, J.M., Distinguishing live from dead Foraminifera: Methods review, and proper applications (2000) Micropaleontology, 46 (SUPPL1), pp. 38-46. , Advances in the Biology of Foraminifera
  • Bernhard, J.M., Ostermann, D.R., Williams, D.S., Blanks, J.K., Comparison of two methods to identify live benthic foraminifera: A test between rose bengal, and celltracker green with implications for stable isotope paleoreconstructions (2006) Paleoceanography, 21
  • Bernstein, R.E., Betzer, P.R., Takahashi, K., Radiolarians from the Western North Pacific ocean: A latitudinal study of their distribution, and fluxes (1990) Deep-Sea Res, 37, pp. 1677-1696
  • Boltovskoy, D., Equatorward sedimentary shadows of nearsurface oceanographic patterns (1988) Speculations Sci. Technol, 11, pp. 219-232
  • Boltovskoy, D., The sedimentary record of pelagic biogeography (1994) Prog. Oceanogr, 34, pp. 135-160
  • Boltovskoy, D., Alder, V.A., Microzooplankton, and tintinnid species-specific assemblage structures: Patterns of distribution, and year-to-year variations in the weddell sea (Antarctica (1992) J. Plankton Res, 14, pp. 1405-1423
  • Boltovskoy, D., Alder, V.A., Paleoecological implications of radiolarian distribution, and standing stocks vs. Accumulation rates in the Weddell Sea (1992) The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change, pp. 377-384. , In Kennett, J. P., and Warnke D. A. (eds American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. (USA
  • Boltovskoy, D., Alder, V.A., Abelmann, A., Annual flux of Radiolaria, and other shelled plankters in the Eastern equatorial Atlantic at 853 m: Seasonal variations, and polycystine speciesspecific responses (1993) Deep-Sea Res, 40, pp. 1863-1895
  • Boltovskoy, D., Correa, N., Biogeography of radiolaria polycystina (protista) in the world ocean (2016) Prog. Oceanogr, 149, pp. 82-105
  • Boltovskoy, D., Correa, N., Planktonic equatorial diversity troughs: Fact or artifact? Latitudinal diversity gradients in Radiolaria (2017) Ecology, 98, pp. 112-124
  • Boltovskoy, D., Kling, S.A., Takahashi, K., Bjørklund, K., World atlas of distribution of recent polycystina (radiolaria (2010) Palaeontol. Electron, 13, pp. 1-229
  • Boltovskoy, D., Kogan, M., Alder, V.A., Mianzan, H., First record of a brackish radiolarian (polycystina): Lophophaena rioplatensis n sp in the río de la plata estuary (2003) J. Plankton Res, 25, pp. 1551-1559
  • Boltovskoy, D., Oberhaensli, H., Wefer, G., Radiolarian assemblages in the Eastern tropical Atlantic: Patterns in the plankton, and in sediment trap samples (1996) J. Mar. Syst, 8, pp. 31-51
  • Boltovskoy, E., Lena, H.A., On the decomposition of the protoplasm, and the sinking velocity of the planktonic foraminifers (1970) Int. Rev. Gesamt. Hydrobiol. Hydrogr, 55, pp. 797-804
  • Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J.I., Baranova, O.K., Coleman, C., Garcia, H.E., Grodsky, A., Johnson, D.R., Locarnini, R.A., World ocean database 2013 (2013) NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 72. , In Levitus, S., and Mishonov, A. (eds NOAA, Silver Spring (USA
  • Boyle, E.A., Keigwin, L., North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20 000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature (1987) Nature, 330, pp. 35-40
  • Briggs, J.C., (1996) Global Biogeography, , Elsevier, Amsterdam, (The Netherlands
  • Buesseler, K.O., Steinberg, D.K., Michaels, A.F., Johnson, R.J., Andrews, J.E., Valdes, J.R., Price, J.F., A comparison of the quantity, and composition of material caught in a neutrally buoyant versus surface-tethered sediment trap (2000) Deep-Sea Res, 47, pp. 277-294
  • Burckle, L.H., Displaced Antarctic diatoms in the almirante passage (1981) Mar. Geol, 39, pp. 39-43
  • Caron, D.A., Swanberg, N.R., The ecology of planktonic sarcodines (1990) Aquat. Sci, 3, pp. 147-180
  • Casey, R.E., Partridge, T.M., Sloan, J.R., Radiolarian life spans, mortality rates., and seasonality gained from Recent sediment, and plankton samples (1970) Proceedings of the Second Planktonic Conference, pp. 159-165. , In Farinacci, A. (ed Tecnoscienza, Roma (Italy
  • Casey, R.E., Spaw, J.M., Kunze, F.R., Polycystine radiolarian distributions, and enhancements related to oceanographic conditions in a hypothetical ocean (1982) Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc, 32, pp. 319-332
  • Cifelli, R., Sachs, K.N., Abundance relationships of planktonic foraminifera, and radiolaria (1966) Deep-Sea Res, 13, pp. 751-753
  • The surface of the ice-age earth quantitative geologic evidence is used to reconstruct boundary conditions for the climate 18 000 years ago (1976) Science, 191, pp. 1131-1144. , Climap
  • Cortese, G., Bjørklund, K.R., The taxonomy of boreal Atlantic ocean actinommida (radiolaria (1998) Micropaleontology, 44, pp. 149-160
  • De Garidel-Thoron, T., Rosenthal, Y., Beaufort, L., Bard, E., Sonzogni, C., Mix, A.C., A multiproxy assessment of the Western equatorial Pacific hydrography during the last 30 kyr (2007) Paleoceanography, 22, p. PA3204
  • Erez, J., Takahashi, K., Honjo, S., In situ dissolution experiment of radiolaria in the central North pacific ocean (1982) Earth Planet Sci. Lett, 59, pp. 245-254
  • Fischer, G., Karstensen, J., Romero, O., Baumann, K.-H., Donner, B., Hefter, J., Mollenhauer, G., Iversen, M., Bathypelagic particle flux signatures from a suboxic eddy in the oligotrophic tropical North Atlantic: Production, sedimentation, and preservation (2016) Biogeosciences, 13, pp. 3203-3223
  • Fischer, G., Wefer, G., Sampling, preparation, and analysis of marine particulate matter (1991) Marine Particles: Analysis, and Characterization, 63, pp. 391-397. , In Hurd, D. C., and Spencer, D. W. (eds American Geophysical Union, Washington DC (USA
  • Fischer, G., Wefer, G., Long-term observation of particle fluxes in the Eastern Atlantic: Seasonality, changes of flux with depth, and comparison with the sediment record (1996) The South Atlantic. Present, and Past Circulation, pp. 325-344. , In Wefer, G., Berger, W. H., Siedler, G., and Webb D. J. (eds Springer, Berlin (Germany
  • Gowing, M.M., Trophic biology of phaeodarian radiolarians, and flux of living radiolarians in the upper 2000 m of the North pacific central gyre (1986) Deep-Sea Res, 33, pp. 655-674
  • Gowing, M.M., Seasonal radiolarian flux at the vertex North pacific time-series site (1993) Deep-Sea Res, 40, pp. 517-545
  • Gowing, M.M., Coale, S.L., Fluxes of living radiolarians, and their skeletons along a Northeast pacific transect coastal upwelling to open ocean waters (1989) Deep-Sea Res, 36, pp. 561-576
  • Grego, M., Stachowitsch, M., De Troch, M., Riedel, B., Celltracker green labelling vs rose bengal staining: Ctg wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods, and nematodes (2013) Biogeosciences, 10, pp. 4565-4575
  • Haidar, A.T., Thierstein, H.R., Deuser, W.G., Calcareous phytoplankton standing stocks, fluxes, and accumulation in holocene sediments off bermuda (n Atlantic (2000) Deep-Sea Res, 47, pp. 1907-1938
  • Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T., Ryan, P.D., PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education, and data analysis (2001) Palaeontol. Electron, 4, pp. 1-9
  • Hayek, L.A.C., Buzas, M.A., (1997) Surveying Natural Populations Quantitative Tools for Assessing Biodiversity, , Columbia University Press New York (USA
  • Howe, J.N.W., Piotrowski, A.M., Noble, T.L., Mulitza, S., Chiessi, C.M., Bayon, G., North Atlantic deep water production during the last glacial maximum (2016) Nat. Commun, 7, p. 11765
  • Hu, W.F., Zhang, L.L., Chen, M.H., Zeng, L.L., Zhou, W.H., Xiang, R., Zhang, Q., Liu, S.H., Distribution of living radiolarians in spring in the South China Sea, and its responses to environmental factors (2015) Sci. China Earth Sci, 58, pp. 270-285
  • Hurd, D.C., Factors affecting solution rate of biogenic opal in seawater (1972) Earth. Planet. Sci. Lett, 15, pp. 411-417
  • Hurd, D.C., Takahashi, K., On the estimation of minimum mechanical loss during an in situ biogenic silica dissolution experiment (1983) Mar. Micropaleontol, 7, pp. 441-447
  • Ikenoue, T., Bjørklund, K.R., Kruglikova, S.B., Onodera, J., Kimoto, K., Harada, N., Flux variations, and vertical distributions of siliceous rhizaria (radiolaria, and phaeodaria) in the Western arctic ocean: Indices of environmental changes (2015) Biogeosciences, 12, pp. 2019-2046
  • Ikenoue, T., Takahashi, K., Tanaka, S., Fifteen year timeseries of radiolarian fluxes, and environmental conditions in the Bering sea, and the central subarctic pacific 1990-2005 (2012) Deep-Sea Res, 61-64, pp. 17-49
  • Imbrie, J., Kipp, N.G., A new micropaleontological method for quantitative paleoclimatology: Applications to a late pleistocene caribbean core (1971) The Late Cenozoic Ages, pp. 71-181. , In Turekian, K. (ed Yale University Press, New Haven (USA
  • Ishitani, Y., Takahashi, K., The vertical distribution of Radiolaria in the waters surrounding Japan (2007) Mar. Micropaleontol, 65, pp. 113-136
  • Ishitani, Y., Ujiié, Y., De Vargas, C., Not, F., Takahashi, K., Two distinct lineages in the radiolarian order spumellaria having different ecological preferences (2012) Deep-Sea Res, 61-64, pp. 172-178
  • Ishitani, Y., Ujiié, Y., Takishita, K., Uncovering sibling species in radiolaria: Evidence for ecological partitioning in a marine planktonic protist (2014) Mol. Phylogen. Evol, 78, pp. 215-222
  • Itaki, T., Hasegawa, S., Destruction of radiolarian shells during sample drying, and its effect on apparent faunal composition (2000) Micropaleontology, 46, pp. 179-185
  • Itaki, T., Ito, M., Narita, H., Ahagon, N., Sakai, H., Depth distribution of radiolarians from the chukchi, and beaufort seas, Western arctic (2003) Deep-Sea Res, 50, pp. 1507-1522
  • Johnson, D.A., Nigrini, C., Radiolaria biogeography in surface sediments of the Eastern Indian Ocean (1982) Mar. Micropaleontol, 7, pp. 237-281
  • Johnson, T.C., The dissolution of siliceous microfossils in surface sediments of the Eastern tropical Pacific (1974) Deep-Sea Res, 21, pp. 851-864
  • Kamikuri, S.I., Motoyama, I., Nishimura, A., Radiolarian assemblages in surface sediments along longitude 175°e in the pacific ocean (2008) Mar. Micropaleontol, 69, pp. 151-172
  • King, A.L., Howard, W.R., Seasonality of foraminiferal fux in sediment traps at chatham rise SW Pacific: Implications for paleotemperature estimates (2001) Deep-Sea Res, 48, pp. 1687-1708
  • King, A.L., Howard, W.R., Planktonic foraminiferal flux seasonality in SubAntarctic sediment traps: A test for paleoclimate reconstructions (2003) Paleoceanography, 18
  • Kling, S.A., Relation of radiolarian distribution to subsurface hydrography in the North Pacific (1976) Deep-Sea Res, 23, pp. 1043-1058
  • Kling, S.A., Vertical distribution of polycystine radiolarians in the central North pacific (1979) Mar. Micropaleontol, 4, pp. 295-318
  • Kling, S.A., Boltovskoy, D., Radiolarian vertical distribution patterns across the Southern California current (1995) Deep-Sea Res, 42, pp. 191-231
  • Krause, J.W., Brzezinski, M.A., Siegel, D.A., Thunell, R.C., Biogenic silica standing stock, and export in the santa barbara channel ecosystem (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, pp. 736-749
  • Kruglikova, S.B., (2013) Radiolyarii-Polycystina Iz Donnykh Otlozhenii Mirovogo Okeana Kak Bioindikatory Izmeneniya Okruzhayuschei Sredy, , Radiolaria-Polycstina from the bottom sediments of the World Ocean as bioindicators of environmental fluctuations] GEOS, Moscow (Russia
  • Kruglikova, S.B., Bjørklund, K.R., Hammer, Ø., Anderson, O.R., Endemism, and speciation in the polycystine radiolarian genus Actinomma in the Arctic Ocean: Description of two new species Actinomma georgii n sp, and A turidae n sp (2009) Mar. Micropaleontol, 72, pp. 26-48
  • Lange, C.B., Treppke, U.F., Fischer, G., Seasonal diatom fluxes in the Guinea Basin, and their relationship to trade winds hydrography, and upwelling events (1994) Deep-Sea Res, 41, pp. 859-878
  • Lazarus, D.B., Suzuki, N., Caulet, J.-P., Nigrini, C., Goll, I., Goll, R., Dolven, J.K., Diver, P., An evaluated list of cenozoic-recent radiolarian species names (polycystinea), based on those used in the DSDP, ODP, and IODP deep-sea drilling programs (2015) Zootaxa, 3999, pp. 301-333
  • Leventer, A.R., Dunbar, R.B., Diatom flux in mcmurdo sound Antarctica (1987) Mar. Micropaleontol, 12, pp. 49-64
  • Lima, I.D., Lam, P.J., Doney, S.C., Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model (2014) Biogeosciences, 11, pp. 1177-1198
  • Massera Bottazzi, E., Schreiber, B., Bowen, V.T., Acantharia in the Atlantic Ocean their abundance, and preservation (1971) Limnol. Oceanogr, 16, pp. 677-684
  • Matsuzaki, K.M., Itaki, T., Kimoto, K., Vertical distribution of polycystine radiolarians in the Northern East China sea (2016) Mar. Micropaleontol, 125, pp. 66-84
  • Michaels, A.F., Vertical distribution, and abundance of acantharia and their symbionts (1988) Mar. Biol, 97, pp. 559-569
  • Morley, J.J., Shemesh, A., Abelmann, A., Laboratory analysis of dissolution effects on Southern Ocean polycystine Radiolaria (2014) Mar. Micropaleontol, 110, pp. 83-86
  • Mulitza, S., Boltovskoy, D., Donner, B., Meggers, H., Paul, A., Wefer, G., Temperature: δ18O relationships of planktonic foraminifera collected from surface waters (2003) Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol, 202, pp. 143-152
  • Nimmergut, A., Abelmann, A., Spatial, and seasonal changes of radiolarian standing stocks in the Sea of Okhotsk (2002) Deep-Sea Res, 49, pp. 463-493
  • Nöthig, E.M., Gowing, M.M., Late winter abundance, and distribution of phaeodarian radiolarians, other large protozooplankton, and copepod nauplii in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (1991) Mar. Biol, 111, pp. 473-484
  • Okazaki, Y., Takahashi, K., Itaki, T., Kawasaki, Y., Comparison of radiolarian vertical distributions in the okhotsk sea near the Kuril Islands, and in the NorthWestern North pacific off hokkaido Island (2004) Mar. Micropaleontol, 51, pp. 257-284
  • Petrushevskaya, M.G., Radiolaria in the plankton, and Recent sediments from the Indian Ocean, and Antarctic (1971) The Micropaleontology of Oceans, pp. 319-329. , In Funnel, B. M., and Riedel, W. R. (eds Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK
  • Petrushevskaya, M.G., (1971) Radiolyarii Nassellaria v Planktone Mirovogo Okeana, , Radiolaria Nassellaria in the plankton of the World Ocean]. Nauka Leningrad
  • Petrushevskaya, M.G., Spumellarian, and nassellarian radiolaria in the plankton, and bottom sediments of the central pacific (1971) The Micropaleontology of Oceans, pp. 309-317. , In Funnel, B. M., and Riedel, W. R. (eds Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK
  • Petrushevskaya, M.G., (1986) Radiolaryarievyi Analiz, , Radiolarian analysis]. Nauka USSR), Leningrad
  • Popova, I.M., Transportation of radiolarian shells by currents (calculations based on the example of the Kuroshio (1986) Mar. Micropaleontol, 11, pp. 197-201
  • Renz, G.W., The distribution, and ecology of radiolaria in the central pacific: Plankton, and surface sediments (1976) Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr, 22, pp. 1-200
  • Reyment, R.A., Motoyama, I., Ota, M., Tanaka, Y., A note on seasonal variation in radiolarian abundance (2008) Nat. Resour. Res, 17, pp. 187-195
  • Siegel, D.A., Deuser, W.G., Trajectories of sinking particles in the sargasso sea: Modeling of statistical funnels above deepocean sediment traps (1997) Deep-Sea Res, 44, pp. 1519-1541
  • Siegel, D.A., Granata, T.C., Michaels, F., Dickey, T.D., Mesoscale eddy diffusion, particle sinking, and the interpretation of sediment trap data (1990) J. Geophys. Res, 95, pp. 5305-5311
  • Stepanjants, S.D., Cortese, G., Kruglikova, S.B., Bjørklund, K.R., A review of bipolarity concepts: History, and examples from Radiolaria and medusozoa (Cnidaria (2006) Mar. Biol. Res, 2, pp. 200-241
  • Swanberg, N.R., Bjørklund, K.R., The radiolarian fauna of Western Norwegian fjords: Patterns of abundance in the plankton (1986) Mar. Micropaleontol, 11, pp. 231-241
  • Takahashi, K., Radiolaria: Sinking population standing stock, and production rate (1984) Mar. Micropaleontol, 8, pp. 171-181
  • Takahashi, K., (1991) Radiolaria: Flux, Ecology, and Taxonomy in the Pacific, and Atlantic, , Ocean Biocoenosis Series, MA
  • Takahashi, K., Honjo, S., Vertical flux of radiolaria: A taxon-quantitative sediment trap study from the Western tropical Atlantic (1981) Micropaleontology, 27, pp. 140-190
  • Takahashi, K., Honjo, S., Radiolarian skeletons: Size, weight, sinking speed, and residence time in tropical pelagic oceans (1983) Deep-Sea Res, 30, pp. 543-568
  • Tanaka, S., Takahashi, K., Detailed vertical distribution of radiolarian assemblage (0-3000 m, fifteen layers) in the central subarctic pacific, June 2006 (2008) Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyushu Univ. Ser. D Earth Panet. Sci, 32, pp. 49-72
  • Treppke, U.F., Lange, C., Donner, B., Fischer, G., Ruhland, G., Wefer, G., Diatom, and silicoflagellate fluxes at the walvis ridge: An environment controlled by coastal upwelling in the benguela system (1996) J. Mar. Res, 54, pp. 991-1016
  • Usbeck, R., Schlitzer, R., Fischer, G., Wefer, G., Particle fluxes in the ocean: Comparison of sediment trap data with results from inverse modeling (2003) J. Mar. Syst, 39, pp. 167-183
  • Vincent, E., Berger, W.H., Planktonic Foraminifera, and their use in paleoceanography (1981) The Oceanic Lithosphere, 7. , In Emiliani C. (ed The Sea Wiley Interscience, Hoboken
  • Von Bodungen, B., Wunsch, M., Furderer, H., Sampling, and analysis of suspended, and sinking particles in the Northern North Atlantic (1991) Marine Particles: Analysis, and Characterization, 63, pp. 47-56. , In Hurd, D. C., and Spencer, D. W. (eds American Geophysical Union, Washington DC
  • Wefer, G., Berger, W.H., Siedler, G., Webb, D.J., (1996) The South Atlantic. Present, and Past Circulation, , Springer, Berlin
  • Welling, L.A., (1997) Environmental Control of Radiolarian Abundance in the Central Equatorial Pacific, and Implications for Paleoceanographic Reconstructions, pp. 1-314. , PhD Thesis Oregon State University
  • Wiebe, P.H., Boyd, S.H., Limits of Nematoscelis megalops in the NorthWestern Atlantic in relation to gulf stream cold-core rings part i horizontal, and vertical distributions (1978) J. Mar. Res, 36, pp. 119-142
  • Yuasa, T., Dolven, J.K., Bjørklund, K.R., Mayama, S., Takahashi, O., Molecular phylogenetic position of hexacontium pachydermum jørgensen (radiolaria (2009) Mar. Micropaleontol, 73, pp. 129-134
  • Zasko, D.N., Kosobokova, K.N., Radiolyarii v planktone Arkticheskogo basseina: Vidovoi sostav i raspredelenie [radiolarians in plankton of the Arctic Basin: Species composition, and distribution] (2014) Zool. Zh., 93, pp. 1057-1069

Citas:

---------- APA ----------
(2017) . Vertical distribution patterns of Radiolaria Polycystina (Protista) in the World Ocean: Living ranges, isothermal submersion and settling shells. Journal of Plankton Research, 39(2), 330-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx003
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Boltovskoy, D. "Vertical distribution patterns of Radiolaria Polycystina (Protista) in the World Ocean: Living ranges, isothermal submersion and settling shells" . Journal of Plankton Research 39, no. 2 (2017) : 330-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx003
---------- MLA ----------
Boltovskoy, D. "Vertical distribution patterns of Radiolaria Polycystina (Protista) in the World Ocean: Living ranges, isothermal submersion and settling shells" . Journal of Plankton Research, vol. 39, no. 2, 2017, pp. 330-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx003
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Boltovskoy, D. Vertical distribution patterns of Radiolaria Polycystina (Protista) in the World Ocean: Living ranges, isothermal submersion and settling shells. J. Plankton Res. 2017;39(2):330-349.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbx003