Artículo

Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor

Abstract:

A particularly longstanding, prevalent, and well-documented stereotype is the belief that men possess higher-level cognitive abilities than women do. This brilliance = male stereotype has been shown to be endorsed even by children as young as 6-years-old and is believed to be a factor driving the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Motivated by the fact that cultural products serve as a source for acquiring individual values and behaviors, we study the presence of this stereotype in a large collection of movie transcripts covering half a century of Western-world film history (n = 11,550). Concretely, we use natural language processing techniques to quantify associations between gender pronouns and high-level cognitive ability-related words. Overall, our estimates suggest that, at an aggregate level, the brilliance = male stereotype is effectively present in films and that movies specifically targeted at children contain this stereotypical association. Moreover, this pattern seems to have been quite persistent for the last 50 years. © 2019, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Registro:

Documento: Artículo
Título:Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films
Autor:Gálvez, R.H.; Tiffenberg, V.; Altszyler, E.
Filiación:Departamento de Computación, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Ciencias de la Computación, CONICET-UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Fundación Sadosky, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave:Brilliance = male stereotype; Computational content analysis; Culturomics; Film history; Gender stereotypes; STEM fields
Año:2019
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01019-x
Título revista:Sex Roles
Título revista abreviado:Sex Roles
ISSN:03600025
CODEN:SROLD
Registro:http://digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/collection/paper/document/paper_03600025_v_n_p_Galvez

Referencias:

  • Bandura, A., Ross, D., Ross, S.A., Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models (1963) The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 (1), pp. 3-11. , PID: 13966304
  • Bem, S.L., Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing (1981) Psychological Review, 88 (4), pp. 354-364
  • Bian, L., Leslie, S.-J., Cimpian, A., Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children’s interests (2017) Science, 355 (6323), pp. 389-391. , http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6323/389, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Broverman, I.K., Sex-role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health (1970) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34 (1), pp. 1-7. , PID: 5436460
  • Cape, G.S., Addiction, stigma and movies (2003) Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 107 (3), pp. 163-169
  • Carlana, M., Implicit stereotypes: Evidence from teachers’ gender bias (2018) HKS Working Papers. No. RWP18–034, , https://ssrn.com/abstract=3274717, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Chen, H., Cohen, P., Chen, S., How big is a big odds ratio? Interpreting the magnitudes of odds ratios in epidemiological studies (2010) Communications in Statistics: Simulation and Computation, 39 (4), pp. 860-864
  • Cheryan, S., Plaut, V.C., Handron, C., Hudson, L., The stereotypical computer scientist: Gendered media representations as a barrier to inclusion for women (2013) Sex Roles, 69 (1-2), pp. 58-71. , https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11199-013-0296-x, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Church, K.W., Hanks, P., Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography (1990) Computational Linguistics, 16 (1), pp. 22-29. , http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=89086.89095, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Collins, R.L., Content analysis of gender roles in media: Where are we now and where should we go? (2011) Sex Roles, 64 (3-4), pp. 290-298
  • Crowley, K., Callanan, M.A., Tenenbaum, H.R., Allen, E., Parents explain more often to boys than to girls during shared scientific thinking (2001) Psychological Science, 12 (3), pp. 258-261
  • Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A.N., Greenwald, A.G., Math–gender stereotypes in elementary school children (2011) Child Development, 82 (3), pp. 766-779
  • Dimnik, T., Felton, S., Accountant stereotypes in movies distributed in North America in the twentieth century (2006) Accounting, Organizations and Society, 31 (2), pp. 129-155
  • Flicker, E., Between brains and breasts—women scientists in fiction film: On the marginalization and sexualization of scientific competence (2003) Public Understanding of Science, 12 (3), pp. 307-318
  • Furnham, A., Reeves, E., Budhani, S., Parents think their sons are brighter than their daughters: Sex differences in parental self-estimations and estimations of their children’s multiple intelligences (2002) The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163 (1), pp. 24-39
  • Gaertner, S.L., McLaughlin, J.P., Racial stereotypes: Associations and ascriptions of positive and negative characteristics (1983) Social Psychology Quarterly, 46 (1), pp. 23-30. , http://www.jstor.org/stable/3033657, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Garg, N., Schiebinger, L., Jurafsky, D., Zou, J., Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes (2018) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115 (16), pp. E3635-E3644
  • The reel truth: Women aren’t seen or heard (2015) An Automated Analysis of Gender Representation in Popular Films. Retrieved From, , https://seejane.org/research-informs-empowers/data/, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Haddock, C.K., Rindskopf, D., Shadish, W.R., Using odds ratios as effect sizes for meta-analysis of dichotomous data: A primer on methods and issues (1998) Psychological Methods, 3 (3), pp. 339-353
  • Jurafsky, D., Martin, J.H., (2000) Speech and language processing: An introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics and speech recognition, , 3, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River
  • Kirkcaldy, B., Noack, P., Furnham, A., Siefen, G., Parental estimates of their own and their children’s intelligence (2007) European Psychologist, 12 (3), pp. 173-180
  • Koivula, N., Gender stereotyping in televised media sport coverage (1999) Sex Roles, 41 (7-8), pp. 589-604
  • Lamoreaux, M., Morling, B., Outside the head and outside individualism-collectivism: Further meta-analyses of cultural products (2012) Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43 (2), pp. 299-327
  • Larivière, V., Ni, C., Gingras, Y., Cronin, B., Sugimoto, C.R., Bibliometrics: Global gender disparities in science (2013) Nature News, 504 (7479), pp. 211-213
  • Lenton, A.P., Sedikides, C., Bruder, M., A latent semantic analysis of gender stereotype-consistency and narrowness in American English (2009) Sex Roles, 60 (3), pp. 269-278
  • Leslie, S.-J., Cimpian, A., Meyer, M., Freeland, E., Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines (2015) Science, 347 (6219), pp. 262-265
  • Long, M., Steinke, J., Applegate, B., Knight Lapinski, M., Johnson, M.J., Ghosh, S., Portrayals of male and female scientists in television programs popular among middle school-age children (2010) Science Communication, 32 (3), pp. 356-382
  • Maccoby, E.E., Wilson, W.C., Identification and observational learning from films (1957) Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55 (1), pp. 76-87
  • Michel, J.-B., Shen, Y.K., Aiden, A.P., Veres, A., Gray, M.K., The Google Books Team, … Aiden, E. L (2011) Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books. Science, 331 (6014), pp. 176-182. , http://science.sciencemag.org/content/331/6014/176, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Morling, B., Lamoreaux, M., Measuring culture outside the head: A meta-analysis of individualism—collectivism in cultural products (2008) Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12 (3), pp. 199-221
  • Nosek, B.A., Smyth, F.L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N.M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., Greenwald, A.G., National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement (2009) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (26), pp. 10593-10597. , https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809921106
  • Olivier, J., Bell, M.L., Effect sizes for 2 × 2 contingency tables (2013) PLoS ONE, 8 (3), pp. 1-7
  • Orthia, L.A., Morgain, R., The gendered culture of scientific competence: A study of scientist characters in doctor Who 1963–2013 (2016) Sex Roles, 75 (3-4), pp. 79-94
  • Ramakrishna, A., Martìnez, V.R., Malandrakis, N., Singla, K., Narayanan, S., Linguistic analysis of differences in portrayal of movie characters (2017) In Proceedings of the 55Th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 1, pp. 1669-1678. , http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P17-1153, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Reuben, E., Sapienza, P., Zingales, L., How stereotypes impair women’s careers in science (2014) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111 (12), pp. 4403-4408
  • Schütze, H., Pedersen, J., A vector model for syntagmatic and paradigmatic relatedness (1993) Proceedings of the 9Th Annual Conference of the UW Centre for the New OED and Text Research, pp. 104-113. , Vancouver
  • Schwartz, H.A., Eichstaedt, J.C., Kern, M.L., Dziurzynski, L., Ramones, S.M., Agrawal, M., Ungar, L.H., Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: The open-vocabulary approach (2013) Plos ONE, 8 (9), pp. 1-16. , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073791
  • Shumow, L., Schmidt, J.A., (2013) Enhancing adolescents’ motivation for science, , Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks
  • Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., Kelly, E., The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women (1986) Sex Roles, 14 (9-10), pp. 519-532
  • Smith, D.G., Rosenstein, J.E., Nikolov, M.C., Chaney, D.A., The power of language: Gender, status, and agency in performance evaluations (2018) Sex Roles, 80, pp. 159-171
  • Smyth, F.L., Nosek, B.A., On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: Explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity (2015) Frontiers in Psychology, 6, pp. 1-19. , https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00415, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Steele, C., A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance (1997) The American Psychologist, 52 (6), pp. 613-629
  • Steinke, J., Cultural representations of gender and science: Portrayals of female scientists and engineers in popular films (2005) Science Communication, 27 (1), pp. 27-63
  • Steinke, J., Tavarez, P.M.P., Cultural representations of gender and stem: Portrayals of female stem characters in popular films 2002-2014 (2018) International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 9 (3), pp. 244-277
  • Steinke, J., Lapinski, M.K., Crocker, N., Zietsman-Thomas, A., Williams, Y., Evergreen, S.H., Kuchibhotla, S., Assessing media influences on middle school–aged children’s perceptions of women in science using the draw-a-scientist test (dast) (2007) Science Communication, 29 (1), pp. 35-64. , …
  • Steinke, J., Applegate, B., Lapinski, M., Ryan, L., Long, M., Gender differences in adolescents’ wishful identification with scientist characters on television (2012) Science Communication, 34 (2), pp. 163-199
  • Stoet, G., Geary, D.C., The gender-equality paradox in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (2018) Psychological Science, 29 (4), pp. 581-593
  • Storage, D., Horne, Z., Cimpian, A., Leslie, S.-J., The frequency of “brilliant” and “genius” in teaching evaluations predicts the representation of women and African Americans across fields (2016) PLoS ONE, 11 (3), pp. 1-17
  • Tan, A.-L., Jocz, J.A., Zhai, J., Spiderman and science: How students’ perceptions of scientists are shaped by popular media (2017) Public Understanding of Science, 26 (5), pp. 520-530. , PID: 26582070
  • Tenenbaum, H.R., Leaper, C., Parent-child conversations about science: The socialization of gender inequities? (2003) Developmental Psychology, 39 (1), pp. 34-47
  • Twenge, J.M., Campbell, W.K., Gentile, B., Male and female pronoun use in U.S. books reflects women’s status, 1900–2008 (2012) Sex Roles, 67 (9), pp. 488-493
  • Upson, S., Friedman, L.F., Where are all the female geniuses? (2012) Scientific American Mind, 23 (5), pp. 63-65. , http://www.jstor.org/stable/24942297, Accessed 1 Feb 2019
  • Williams, J.E., Best, D.L., (1982) Measuring sex stereotypes: A thirty-nation study, , Sage Publications, Inc., Beverly Hills

Citas:

---------- APA ----------
Gálvez, R.H., Tiffenberg, V. & Altszyler, E. (2019) . Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films. Sex Roles.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01019-x
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Gálvez, R.H., Tiffenberg, V., Altszyler, E. "Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films" . Sex Roles (2019).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01019-x
---------- MLA ----------
Gálvez, R.H., Tiffenberg, V., Altszyler, E. "Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films" . Sex Roles, 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01019-x
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Gálvez, R.H., Tiffenberg, V., Altszyler, E. Half a Century of Stereotyping Associations Between Gender and Intellectual Ability in Films. Sex Roles. 2019.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-019-01019-x