El editor solo permite decargar el artículo en su versión post-print desde el repositorio. Por favor, si usted posee dicha versión, enviela a
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


Recruitment by fencing of semi-arid trees is a common woodland conservation strategy that may have both positive and negative implications. Domestic herbivores can act as efficient dispersal seed agents but they can also affect the survival and growth of the trees first stages. Prosopis flexuosa (algarrobo) woodlands represent the most important plant community in the Monte region in Argentina and as this resource is affected by deforestation, grazing, natural fires and replacement of natural ecosystems by croplands, in order to protect the “algarrobo” a reserve had been established. As efficient management and conservation program depends on the information on population structure and mating system, the objectives of this work were to estimate mating and pollen dispersal patterns in a wild P. flexuosa population from the Ñacuñan fenced to exclude domestic cattle for 40 years. This population is mainly outcrosser (tm = 0.996), sensitive to inbreeding depression at seed stage, having relative reduced pollen mediated gene dispersal distance (4.56–20.35 m), which favors inbreeding as a consequence of mating between related individuals. Our results suggest that for ex situ conservation the distance that would be enough to avoid full sib sampling among harvested seed-trees is about 20 m. Collecting seeds from different pods reduce the proportion of full sibs within progeny arrays. For in situ conservation it is important to take into account that forest patches separated by more than 250 m are expected to be isolated, increasing the risk of genetic variability loss, inbreeding increase and population extinction. The results are discussed in reference to the “algarrobo” management program; while in some case excluding big mammals from the stands should be advisable, the interaction with long dispersal big herbivores might be considered as a strategy to promote increased outbreeding reducing the rate of mating between related individuals. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Implications of mating system and pollen dispersal indices for management and conservation of the semi-arid species Prosopis flexuosa (Leguminosae)
Autor:Bessega, C.; Pometti, C.; Campos, C.; Saidman, B.O.; Vilardi, J.C.
Filiación:Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Buenos Aires, Argentina
CONICET-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Ecología, Genética y Evolución (IEGEBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las zonas Áridas (UNCuyo-Gobierno de Mendoza-CONICET), Mendoza, Argentina
Palabras clave:Biparental inbreeding; Management; Microsatellites; Native forest; Outcrossing rate; Recruitment; Animals; Conservation; Deforestation; Forestry; Management; Plants (botany); Biparental inbreeding; Microsatellites; Native forests; Outcrossing rate; Recruitment; Information management; angiosperm; conservation management; conservation status; deforestation; forest ecosystem; genetic marker; genetic variation; growth; herbivore; inbreeding depression; outcrossing; plant community; pollen; population structure; recruitment (population dynamics); reproductive strategy; seed dispersal; semiarid region; survival; woodland; Deforestation; Ecosystems; Forest Management; Argentina; Monte; Bos taurus; Fabaceae; Mammalia; Prosopis flexuosa
Página de inicio:218
Página de fin:227
Título revista:Forest Ecology and Management
Título revista abreviado:For. Ecol. Manage.


  • Ares, J., Beeskow, A.M., Bertiller, M.B., Rostagno, C.M., Irisarri, M.D., Anchorena, J., Defossé, G.E., Structural and dynamic characteristics of overgrazed lands of Northern Patagonia, Argentina (1990) Managed Grasslands, pp. 149-175. , A. Breymeyer Elsevier Science Publishers Amsterdam
  • Aschero, V., Vázquez, D.P., Habitat protection, cattle grazing and density dependent reproduction in a desert tree (2009) Austral. Ecol., 34, pp. 901-907
  • Aschero, V., García, D., The fencing paradigm in woodland conservation: consequences for recruitment of a semi-arid tree (2012) Appl. Veg. Sci., pp. 1-11
  • Aschero, V., Morris, W.F., Vazquez, D.P., Alvarez, J.A., Villagra, P.E., Demography and population growth rate of the tree Prosopis flexuosa with contrasting grazing regimes in central Monte Desert (2016) For. Ecol. Manage., 369, pp. 184-190
  • Austerlitz, F., Smouse, P.E., Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. II. Relation between FFT, pollen dispersal and interfemale distance (2001) Genetics, 157, pp. 851-857
  • Austerlitz, F., Smouse, P.E., Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. IV. Estimating the dispersal parameter (2002) Genetics, 161, pp. 355-363
  • Bessega, C., Ferreyra, L., Julio, N., Montoya, S., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C., Mating system parameters in species of genus Prosopis (Leguminosae) (2000) Hereditas, 132 (1), pp. 19-27
  • Bessega, C., Pometti, C.L., Ewens, M., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C., Strategies for conservation for disturbed Prosopis alba (Leguminosae, Mimosoidae) forests based on mating system and pollen dispersal parameters (2011) Tree Genet. Genomes, 8, pp. 277-288
  • Bessega, C., Pometti, C.L., Miller, J.T., Watts, R., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C., New microsatellite loci for Prosopis alba and P. chilensis (Fabaceae). Appl (2013) Plant Sci., 1 (5), p. 1200324
  • Bessega, C., Pometti, C.L., Ewens, M., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C., Fine-scale spatial genetic structure analysis in two Argentine populations of Prosopis alba (Mimosoideae) with different levels of ecological disturbance (2016) Eur. J. For. Res., 135, pp. 495-505
  • Bittencourt, J.V.M., Sebbenn, A.M., Patterns of pollen and seed dispersal in a small, fragmented population of the windpollinated tree Araucaria angustifolia in southern Brazil (2007) Heredity, 99, pp. 580-591
  • Bittencourt, J.V.M., Sebbenn, A.M., Pollen and Movement within a continuous forest of wind pollinated Araucaria angustifolia inferred from paternity and TwoGener analysis (2008) Conserv. Genet., 9, pp. 855-868
  • Biscaia de Lacerda, A.E., Kanashiro, M., Sebbenn, A.M., Long-pollen movement and deviation of random mating in a low-density continuous population of a tropical tree Hymenaea courbaril in the Brazilian Amazon (2008) Biotropica, 40 (4), pp. 462-470
  • Cabrera, A., Regiones Fitogeográficas Argentinas (1976), Editorial Acme Buenos Aires; Campos, C.M., Ojeda, R.A., Dispersal and germination of Prosopis flexuosa (Fabaceae) seeds by desert mammals in Argentina (1997) J. Arid Environ., 35, pp. 707-714
  • Campos, C.M., Campos, V.E., Miguel, F., Cona, M.I., Management of protected areas and its effects on an ecosystem function: removal of Prosopis flexuosa seeds by mammals in Argentina drylands (2016) PLoS ONE
  • Campos, C.M., Campos, V.E., Giannoni, S.M., Rodríguez, D., Albanese, S., Cona, M.I., Role of small rodents in the seed dispersal process: Microcavia australis consuming Prosopis flexuosa fruits (2016) Austral. Ecol.
  • Chybicki, I.J., (2015),, INEST 2.0 User's manual. Department of Genetics, Kazimierz Wielki University, Chodkiewicza 30, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Available at (Verified 26 December 2016); Chybicki, I.J., Burczyk, J., Simultaneous estimation of null alleles and inbreeding coefficients (2009) J. Hered., 100, pp. 106-113
  • Chybicki, I.J., Oleksa, A., Burczyk, J., Increased inbreeding and strong kinship structure in Taxus baccata estimated from both AFLP and SSR data (2011) Heredity, 107, pp. 589-600
  • Claraz, J.E., Diario De Exploración Al Chubut 1865–1866 (1988), Marymar Ediciones Buenos Aires, Argentina; Cockerham, C.C., Variance of gene frequencies (1969) Evolution, 23, pp. 72-84
  • Dawson, I.K., Waugh, R., Simons, A.J., Powell, W., Simple sequence repeats provide a direct estimate of pollen-mediated gene dispersal in the tropical tree Gliricidia sepium (1997) Mol. Ecol., 6, pp. 179-183
  • De Villalobos, A., Pelaez, D., Elia, O., Factors related to establishment of Prosopis caldenia Burk. Seedlings in central rangelands of Argentina (2005) Acta Oecol., 27, pp. 99-106
  • Duminil, J., Mendene Adessolo, D.T., Ndiade Bourobou, D., Doucet, J.L., Loo, J., Hardy, O.J., High selfing rate, limited pollen dispersal and inbreeding depression in the emblematic African Rain forest tree Baillonella (2016) For. Ecol. Manage., 379, pp. 20-29
  • Dyer, R.J., Powers of discerning: challenges to understanding dispersal processes in natural populations (2007) Mol. Ecol., 16, pp. 4881-4882
  • (2017),, El futuro de los bosques de América Latina y el Caribe dependerá de su manejo sostenible.) (Verified 1 April 2017); Forti, G., Tambarussi, E.V., Kageyama, P.Y., Moreno, M.A., Ferraz, E.M., Ibañes, B., Mori, G.M., Sebbenn, A.M., Low genetic diversity and intrapopulation spatial genetic structure of the Atlantic Forest tree, Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae) (2014) Ann. For. Res., 57 (2), pp. 165-174
  • Genisse, J., Palacios, R.A., Hoc, P.S., Carrizo, R., Moffat, L., Mom, M.P., Agullo, M.A., Picca, Observaciones sobre la biologia floral de Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoidae). I1 Fases florales y visitantes en el distrito Chaqueño Serrano (1990) Darwiniana, 30, pp. 71-85
  • Guevara, J., Estevez, O., Stassi, C., Monge, A., Botanical composition of the seasonal diet of cattle in the rangelands of the Monte Desert of Mendoza, Argentina (1996) J. Arid Environ., 32, pp. 387-394
  • Goudet, J., Hierfstat, a package for r to compute and test hierarchical F-statistics (2004) Mol. Ecol. Resour.
  • Hardy, O.J., Vekemans, X., SPAGEDi: a versatile computer program to analyse spatial genetic structure at the individual or population levels (2002) Mol. Ecol. Notes, 2, pp. 618-620
  • Hawkes, J.G., Ford-Lloyd, B.V., Maxted, N., Complementary conservation strategies (1997) Plant Genetic Conservation: The in Situ Approach, , J.G. Hawkes B.V. Ford-Lloyd N. Maxted Chapman and Hall ISBN 978-94-009-1437-7
  • Hothorn, T., Conditional Inference Procedures in a Permutation Test Framework Ver 1.1-2. (2015),; Hufford, K.M., Hamrick, J.L., Variability selection at three early life stages of the tropical tree Platypodium elegans (Fabaceae, Papilinoidae) (2003) Evolution, 57, pp. 518-526
  • Jombart, T., Adegenet: a R package for the multivariate analysis of genetic markers (2008) Bioinformatics, 24, pp. 1403-1405
  • Jombart, T., Ahmed, I., Adegenet 1.3-1: new tools for the analysis of genome-wide SNP data (2011) Bioinformatics
  • Keys, R.N., Mating Systems and Pollination Biology of Velvet Mesquite (Prosopis velutina Wooten) (1993), (Thesis dissertation) University of Arizona; Keys, R.N., Smith, S., Mating system parameters and population genetic structure in pioneer populations of Prosopis velutina (Leguminosae) (1994) Am. J. Bot., 81, pp. 1013-1020
  • Ledig, F.T., Conservation strategies for forest gene resources (1986) For. Ecol. Manage., 14, pp. 77-90
  • Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F., Fischer, J., General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation (2006) Biol. Conserv., 131, pp. 433-445
  • Loiselle, B.A., Sork, V.L., Nason, J., Graham, C., Spatial genetic structure of a tropical understory shrub, Psychotria officinalis (Rubiaceae) (1995) Am. J. Bot., 82, pp. 1420-1425
  • Mantel, N., The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach (1967) Cancer Res., 27, pp. 209-220
  • Marchelli, P., Smouse, P.E., Gallo, L.A., Short-distance pollen dispersal for an outcrossed, wind-pollinated southern beech (Nothofagus nervosa (Phil.) Dim. et Mil.) (2012) Tree Genet. Genom., 8 (5), pp. 1123-1134
  • Medina Macedo, L., Biscalia de Lacerda, A.E., Sebbenn, A.M., Zanetti Ribeiro, J., Soccol, C.R., Bittencourt, J.V.M., Using genetic diversity and mating system parameters estimated from genetic markers to determine strategies for the conservation of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert) O. Kuntze (Araucariaceae) (2016) Conserv. Genet., 17, pp. 413-423
  • Moraes, M.L.T., Kageyama, P.Y., Sebbenn, A.M., Correlated mating in dioecious tree species Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All (2012) For. Genet., 11, pp. 55-61
  • Morello, J., La Provincia Fitogeográfica Del Monte (1958), Opera Lilloana Buenos Aires; Mottura, M.C., Finkeldey, R., Verga, A.R., Gailing, O., Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Prosopis chilensis and Prosopis flexuosa and cross-species amplification (2005) Mol. Ecol. Notes, 5. , 487-48
  • Paffetti, D., Travaglini, D., Buonamici, A., Nocentini, S., Vendramin, G.G., Giannini, R., Vettori, C., The influence of forest management on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand structure and genetic diversity (2012) For. Ecol. Manage., 284, pp. 34-44
  • Pometti, C.L., Bessega, C., Vilardi, J.C., Saidman, B.O., Comparison of mating system parameters and genetic structure in three natural scenarios of Acacia visco (Leguminosae, Mimosoidae) (2013) Plant Syst. Evol., 299, pp. 761-771
  • R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing (2017),, R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna ISBN 3-900051-07-0. Available at (Verified 4 may 2017); Rajendra, K.C., Seifert, S., Prinz, K., Gailing, O., Finkeldey, R., Subtle human impacts on neutral genetic diversity and spatial patterns of genetic variation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) (2014) For. Ecol. Manage., 319, pp. 138-149
  • Ritland, K., Correlated matings in the partial selfer Mimulus guttatus (1989) Evolution, 43, pp. 848-859
  • Ritland, K., A series of FORTRAN computer programs for estimating plant mating systems (1990) J. Hered., 81, pp. 235-237
  • Ritland, K., Extensions of models for the estimation of mating systems using n independent loci (2002) Heredity, 88, pp. 221-228
  • Ritland, K., Jain, S.K., A model for the estimation of outcrossing rate and gene frequencies using n independent loci (1981) Heredity, 47, pp. 35-52
  • Robledo-Arnuncio, J.J., Austerlitz, F., Smouse, P.E., A new indirect method of estimating the pollen dispersal curve, independently of effective density (2006) Genetics, 173, pp. 1033-1045
  • Robledo-Arnuncio, J.J., Austerlitz, F., Smouse, P.E., POLDISP: a software package for indirect estimation of contemporary pollen dispersal (2007) Mol. Ecol. Notes, 7, pp. 763-766
  • Roig, F.A., Aportes a la Etnobotanica del Género Prosopis (1993) Iadiz, pp. 99-121. , In: (Ed.), Contribuciones Mendocinas a la quinta Reunión Regional para América Latina y el Caribe de la Red de Forestación del CIID, Unidades de Botanica y Fisiologia vegetal
  • Roma, F., Situación de los Bosques del mundo (2001),, Available at (Verified 26 december 2016); Roser, L., Vilardi, J.C., Saidman, B.O., Ferreyra, L.I., (2017),, EcoGenetics. Spatial Analysis of Phenotypic, Genotypic and Environmental Data. Available at: (Verified 1 April 2017); Roser, L.G., Ferreyra, L.I., Ewens, M., Vilardi, J.C., Saidman, B.O., Isolation by distance and stochastic migration in a fragmented population of Prosopis alba (2017) Am. J. Bot., 104 (2), pp. 1-9
  • Rundel, P., Villagra, P., Dillon, M.O., Roig-Juñent, S., Debandi, G., Arid and semi-arid ecosystems (2007) The Physical Geography of South America, pp. 158-183. , T.T. Veblen K. Young A. Orme Oxford University Press Oxford
  • Saidman, B.O., Estudio De La Variación Alozímica En El Género Prosopis (1985), Cs. Exactas y Nat., Universidad de Buenos Aires Tesis Doctoral, Fac; Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C., Genetic variability and germplasm conservation in the genus Prosopis (1993) Nursery Technology of Forest Tree Species of Arid and Semiarid Regions, pp. 187-198. , S. Puri Winrock-Oxford and IBH New Delhi
  • Sebbenn, A.M., Tamanho amostral para conservacao ex situ de especies arbóreas com sistema misto de reproducao (2003) Rev. Inst. Flor., 15, pp. 109-124
  • Sebbenn, A.M., Sistema de reproduccion en species arbóreas tropicales e suas implicancacoes para la selecao de arvores matrized para reforestamentos ambientais (2006) Pomares De Sementes En Especies Forestais Nativas, pp. 93-138. , A.R. Higa L.D. Silva FUPEF Curitiba, Brasil
  • Simpson, B.B., Neff, J.L., Moldenke, A.R., Prosopis flowers as a resource (1977) Mesquite. Its Biology in Two Desert Scrub Ecosystems, US/IBP Synthesis Series 4, pp. 84-105. , B.B. Simpson Hutchinson & Ross Inc Dowden
  • Sjölund, M.J., Jump, A.S., Coppice management of forests impacts spatial genetic structure but not genetic diversity in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (2015) For. Ecol. Manage., 336, pp. 65-71
  • Smouse, P., Dyer, R.J., Westfall, R.D., Sork, V.L., Two-generation analysis of pollen flow across a landscape. I. Male gamete heterogeneity among females (2001) Evolution, 55, pp. 260-271
  • Squillace, A.E., Average genetic correlations among offspring from open-pollinated forest trees (1974) Silvae Genet., 23, pp. 149-156
  • Stacy, E.A., Cross fertility in two tropical tree species: Evidence of inbreeding deprersion within populations and geneic divergence among populations (2001) Am. J. Bot., 88, pp. 1041-1051
  • Tabeni, S., Ojeda, R.A., Assessing mammal responses to perturbations in temperate aridlands of Argentina (2003) J. Arid Environ., 55, pp. 715-726
  • Vekeman, X., Hardy, O.J., New insights from fine-scale spatial genetic structure analyses in plant populations (2004) Mol. Ecol., 13, pp. 921-935
  • Vilardi, J.C., Saidman, B.O., Palacios, R.A., Muestreo según variabilidad (1988) Prosopis en Argentina, pp. 119-124. , In: Documento preliminar elaborado para el I Taller Internacional sobre Recurso genético y conservación de germoplasma en Prosopis. (Eds FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, UNC-FAO, PIRB, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Villagra, P.E., Defossé, G.E., del Valle, H.F., Tabeni, S., Rostagno, M., Cesca, E., Abraham, E., Land use and disturbance effects on the dynamics of natural ecosystems of the Monte Desert: implications for their management (2009) J. Arid Environ., 73, pp. 202-211
  • Ward, M., Dick, C.W., Gribel, R., Lowe, A.J., To self or not to self. A review of outcrossing and pollen mediated gene flow in neotropical trees (2005) Heredity, 95, pp. 246-254


---------- APA ----------
Bessega, C., Pometti, C., Campos, C., Saidman, B.O. & Vilardi, J.C. (2017) . Implications of mating system and pollen dispersal indices for management and conservation of the semi-arid species Prosopis flexuosa (Leguminosae). Forest Ecology and Management, 400, 218-227.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Bessega, C., Pometti, C., Campos, C., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C. "Implications of mating system and pollen dispersal indices for management and conservation of the semi-arid species Prosopis flexuosa (Leguminosae)" . Forest Ecology and Management 400 (2017) : 218-227.
---------- MLA ----------
Bessega, C., Pometti, C., Campos, C., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C. "Implications of mating system and pollen dispersal indices for management and conservation of the semi-arid species Prosopis flexuosa (Leguminosae)" . Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 400, 2017, pp. 218-227.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Bessega, C., Pometti, C., Campos, C., Saidman, B.O., Vilardi, J.C. Implications of mating system and pollen dispersal indices for management and conservation of the semi-arid species Prosopis flexuosa (Leguminosae). For. Ecol. Manage. 2017;400:218-227.