The objectives of this study were i) to determine the effects of the interactions of water activity, temperature and incubation time on the co-production of AFB1 and CPA by isolates of Aspergillus flavus with different profile of mycotoxin production and ii) to identify the aW and temperature limiting conditions for the production of both mycotoxins. Fungi used in this study were selected because they belonged to different chemotypes: chemotype I (AFB1+/CPA+), III (AFB1+/CPA-) and IV (AFB1-/CPA+), respectively. Two culture media were used; Czapek yeast agar (CYA) and corn extract agar (CEM), at different incubated temperatures (10-40°C) and aW levels (0.80-0.98). AFB1 and CPA production were analyzed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of incubation. Significant differences were observed with respect to mycotoxin production depending on the media evaluated. The AFB1 production occurred more favorably on CYA while the highest CPA concentrations were recorded on CEM. Within the range of aW evaluated in this study, 0.83 was the limiting level for both toxins production. The optimum conditions for AFB1 production occurred at 0.96 aW and 30°C after 21 days of incubation, regardless of the media and isolate. Although different amounts of toxins were produced in each medium, the limiting and optimum conditions for their production were similar in both. No differences in the response of the three isolates to the abiotic factors discussed were observed despite belonging to different chemotypes. The determination of the thresholds of mycotoxins co-production, especially in the case of data obtained with the corn extract medium can be useful to avoid the conditions conducive to co-occurrence of these mycotoxins in corn. © 2013.
|Título:||Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn|
|Autor:||Astoreca, A.; Vaamonde, G.; Dalcero, A.; Marin, S.; Ramos, A.|
|Filiación:||Laboratorio de Microbiología de Alimentos, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina|
Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico-Químicas y Naturales, UNRC, Río Cuarto, Argentina
Food Technology Department, Lleida University, UTPV-CeRTA, Lleida, Spain
|Palabras clave:||Aflatoxin B1; Aspergillus flavus; Cyclopiazonic acid; Temperature; Water activity; Aspergillus flavus; Fungi; Zea mays|
|Página de inicio:||276|
|Página de fin:||283|
|Título revista:||Food Microbiology|
|Título revista abreviado:||Food Microbiol.|
- Abdel-Hadi, A., Schmidt-Heydt, M., Parra, R., Geisen, R., Magan, N., Asystems approach to model the relationship between aflatoxin gene cluster expression, environmental factors, growth and toxin production by Aspergillus flavus (2012) Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 9, pp. 757-767
- Amra, H., Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid from corn grown in Egypt. National research Centre, Food Toxicology and Contaminants, Cairo, Egypt (2009) Toxicology Letters, 189 S, pp. S57-S273
- (1995) Natural Toxins, , Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, Section 990.33, Gaithersburg AOAC International
- Arrus, K., Blank, G., Abramson, D., Clear, R., Holley, R.A., Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in Brazil nuts (2005) Journal of Stored Products Research, 41, pp. 513-527
- Astoreca, A., Dalcero, A., Fernández Pinto, V., Vaamonde, G., Asurvey on distribution and toxigenicity of Aspergillus section Flavi in poultry feeds (2011) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 146, pp. 38-43
- Barros, G., Torres, A.M., Rodriguez, M.I., Chulze, S., Genetic diversity within Aspergillus flavus strains isolated from peanut-cropped soils in Argentina (2006) Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38, pp. 145-152
- Barros, G., Torres, A., Chulze, S., Aspergillus flavus population isolated from soil of Argentina's peanut-growing region. Sclerotia production and toxigenic profile (2005) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, pp. 2349-2353
- Barros, G., Torres, A., Palacio, G., Chulze, S., Aspergillus species from section Flavi isolated from soil at plating and harvest time in peanut-growing regions of Argentina (2003) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, pp. 1303-1307
- Bellí, N., Marín, S., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A.J., Influence of water activity and temperature on growth of isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri obtained from grapes (2004) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 96, pp. 19-27
- Bragulat, M.R., Abarca, M.L., Cabañes, F.J., An easy screening meted for fungi producing ochratoxin A in pure culture (2001) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 71, pp. 139-144
- Burdock, G.A., Flamm, W.G., Safety assessment of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (2000) International Journal of Toxicology, 19, pp. 195-218
- Cole, R.J., Etiology of turkey "X" disease in retrospect: a case for the involvement of cyclopiazonic acid (1986) Mycotoxin Research, 2, pp. 3-7
- Comerio, R., Fernández Pinto, V.E., Vaamonde, G., Short communication: influence of water activity on Penicillium citrinum growth and kinetics of citrinin accumulation in wheat (1998) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 42, pp. 219-223
- Dallyn, H., Fox, A., Spoilage of material of reduced water activity by xerophilic fungi (1980) Microbial Growth and Survival in Extreme Environments, pp. 129-139. , Academic Press, London, G.H. Gould, E.L. Corry (Eds.)
- Da Motta, S., Valente Soares, L., Analytical, nutritional and clinical methods section: simultaneous determination of tenuazonic and cyclopiazonic acids in tomato products (2000) Food Chemistry, 71, pp. 111-116
- Ellis, W.O., Smith, P.J., Simpson, B.K., Khanizadeh, S., Oldham, J.H., Control of growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus under modified atmosphere packaging conditions (1993) Food Microbiology, 10, pp. 9-21
- Fernández Pinto, V., Patriarca, A., Locani, O., Vaamonde, G., Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid in peanuts grown in Argentina (2001) Food Additives and Contaminants, 18, pp. 1017-1020
- Garcia, D., Ramos, A.J., Sanchis, V., Marín, S., Intraspecific variability of growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum isolates at two temperatures (2011) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 151, pp. 195-200
- Giorni, P., Battilani, P., Pietri, A., Magan, N., Effect of aW and CO2 level on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production in high moisture maize post-harvest (2008) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 122, pp. 109-113
- Giorni, P., Magan, N., Pietri, A., Battilani, P., Growth and aflatoxin production of an Italian strain of Aspergillus flavus: influence of ecological factors and nutritional substrates (2011) World Mycotoxin Journal, 4, pp. 425-432
- Giorni, P., Magan, N., Pietri, A., Bertuzzi, T., Battilani, P., Studies on Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from maize in northern Italy (2007) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 113, pp. 330-338
- Gqaleni, N., Smith, J.E., Lacey, J., Coproduction of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in isolates of Aspergillus flavus (1996) Food Additives and Contaminants, 13, pp. 677-685
- Gqaleni, N., Smith, J.E., Lacey, J., Gettinby, G., Effects of temperature, water activity, and incubation time on production of aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid by an isolate of Aspergillus flavus in surface agar culture (1997) Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, pp. 1048-1052
- Horn, B.W., Dorner, J.W., Effect of competition and adverse culture conditions on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus through successive generations (2001) Mycologia, 94, pp. 741-751
- Klich, M.A., Review: environmental and developmental factors influencing aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus (2007) Mycoscience, 48, pp. 71-80
- Lansden, J.A., Davidson, J.I., Occurrence of cyclopiazonic acid in peanuts (1983) Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 45, pp. 766-769
- Le Bars, J., Cyclopiazonic acid bioproduction by Penicillium camemberti Thorn: effect of temperature on individual strains (1979) Annuals of Veterinary Research, 10, pp. 601-602
- Magnoli, C., Astoreca, A., Chiacchiera, S.M., Dalcero, A., Occurrence of ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic mycoflora in corn and corn based foods and feeds in some South American countries (2007) Mycopathologia, 163, pp. 249-260
- Magnoli, C., Astoreca, A., Ponsone, L., Chiacchiera, S., Dalcero, A., Ochratoxin A producing fungi in stored peanut seeds from Córdoba province, Argentina (2006) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86, pp. 2369-2373
- Magnoli, C., Astoreca, A., Ponsone, M.L., Fernández-Juri, M.G., Barberis, C., Dalcero, A., Ochratoxin A and Aspergillus section Nigri in peanut seeds at different months of storage in Córdoba, Argentina (2007) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119, pp. 213-218
- Magnoli, C., Hallak, C., Astoreca, A., Ponsone, L., Chiacchiera, S., Dalcero, A.M., Occurrence of ochratoxin A-producing fungi in commercial corn kernels in Argentina (2006) Mycopathologia, 161, pp. 53-58
- Maragos, C.M., Photolysis of cyclopiazonic acid to fluorescent products (2009) World Mycotoxin Journal, 2, pp. 77-84
- Martins, M.L., Martins, H.M., Natural and invitro coproduction of cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxins (1999) Journal of Food Protection, 62, pp. 292-294
- Molina, M., Giannuzzi, L., Modelling of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus in a solid medium at different temperatures, pH and propionic acid concentrations (2002) Food Research International, 35, pp. 585-594
- Mousa, W., Ghazali, F.M., Jinap, S., Ghazali, H.M., Radu, S., Modelling the effect of water activity and temperature on growth rate and aflatoxin production by two isolates of Aspergillus flavus on paddy (2011) Journal of Applied Microbiology, 111, pp. 1262-1274
- Nepote, M., Piontelli, E., Saubois, A., Occurrence of Aspergillus flavus strains and aflatoxins in corn from Santa Fe, Argentina (1997) Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 47, pp. 262-264
- Nesci, A., Etcheverry, M., Aspergillus section Flavi populations from field maize in Argentina (2002) Letters in Applied Microbiology, 34, pp. 343-348
- Novas, M.V., Cabral, D., Association of mycotoxin and sclerotia production with compatibility groups in Aspergillus flavus from peanut in Argentina (2002) Plant Disease, 86, pp. 215-219
- Pardo, E., Marín, S., Sanchis, V., Ramos, A.J., Prediction of fungal growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus ochraceus on irradiated barley grain as influenced by temperature and water activity (2004) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 95, pp. 79-88
- Pildain, M.B., Cabral, D., Vaamonde, G., Aspergillus flavus populations in cultivated peanut from different agroecological zones of the Argentina, toxigenic and morphological characterisation (2005) RIA, 34, pp. 3-19
- Pildain, M.B., Vaamonde, G., Cabral, D., Analysis of population structure of Aspergillus flavus from peanut based on vegetative compatibility, geographic origin, mycotoxin and sclerotia production (2004) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 93, pp. 31-40
- Pitt, J.I., Miscamble, B.F., Water relations of Aspergillus flavus and closely related species (1995) Journal of Food Protection, 58, pp. 86-90
- Quinn, G.P., Keough, M.J., (2002) Experimental Design Data Analysis for Biologists, p. 520. , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
- Rao, L.B., Husain, A., Presence of cyclopiazonic acid in kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum) causing 'kodua poisoning' in man and its production by associated fungi (1985) Mycopathologia, 89, pp. 177-180
- Resnik, S.L., González, H.H.L., Pacin, A.M., Viora, M., Caballero, G.M., Gros, E.G., Cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus isolated from Argentinean corn (1996) Mycotoxin Research, 12, pp. 61-66
- Ribeiro, J.M.M., Cavaglieri, L.R., Fraga, M.E., Direito, G.M., Dalcero, A.M., Rosa, C.A.R., Influence of water activity, temperature and time on mycotoxins production on barley rootlets (2006) Letters of Applied Microbiology, 42, pp. 179-184
- Sanchis, V., Magan, N., Environmental profiles for growth and mycotoxin production (2004) Mycotoxins in Food: Detection and Control, , Woodhead Publishing Ltd, N. Magan, M. Olsen (Eds.)
- Schindler, A.F., Palmer, J.G., Eisenberg, W.V., Aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus as related to various temperatures (1967) Applied Microbiology, 15, pp. 1006-1009
- Sosa, M.J., Córdoba, J.J., Díaz, C., Rodríguez, M., Bermúdez, E., Asensio, M.A., Núñez, F., Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Penicillium commune isolated from dry-cured ham on a meat extract-based substrate (2002) Journal of Food Protection, 65, pp. 988-992
- Spensley, P.C., Aflatoxin, the active principle in turkey 'X' disease (1963) Endeavour, 22, pp. 75-79
- Trenk, H.L., Hartman, P.A., Effects of moisture content and temperature on aflatoxin production in corn (1970) Applied Microbiology, 19, pp. 781-784
- Vaamonde, G., Varvsavsky, E., Producción de aflatoxinas sobre diferentes variedades de maní (1979) Anuales de la Asociación Química Argentina, 67, pp. 139-152
- Vaamonde, G., Degrossi, C., Comerio, R., Fernández Pinto, V., Aspergillus flavus y A.parasiticus en maní cultivado en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina): Características diferenciales y capacidad aflatoxicogénica (1995) Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 30, pp. 191-198
- Vaamonde, G., Patriarca, A., Fernández Pinto, V., Effect of water activity and temperature on production of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus in peanuts (2006) Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, pp. 225-235. , A.D. Hocking, J.I. Pitt, R.A. Samson, U. Thrane (Eds.) Advances in Food Mycology
- Vaamonde, G., Patriarca, A., Fernández Pinto, V., Comerio, R., Degrossi, C., Variability of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production by Aspergillus section Flavi from different substrates in Argentina (2003) International Journal of Food Microbiology, 88, pp. 79-84
---------- APA ----------Astoreca, A., Vaamonde, G., Dalcero, A., Marin, S. & Ramos, A.
. Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn. Food Microbiology, 38, 276-283.
---------- CHICAGO ----------Astoreca, A., Vaamonde, G., Dalcero, A., Marin, S., Ramos, A.
"Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn"
. Food Microbiology 38
(2014) : 276-283.
---------- MLA ----------Astoreca, A., Vaamonde, G., Dalcero, A., Marin, S., Ramos, A.
"Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn"
. Food Microbiology, vol. 38, 2014, pp. 276-283.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------Astoreca, A., Vaamonde, G., Dalcero, A., Marin, S., Ramos, A. Abiotic factors and their interactions influence on the co-production of aflatoxin B1 and cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus flavus isolated from corn. Food Microbiol. 2014;38:276-283.