Toxigenic fungi can colonize crops and may accumulate bioactive substances in the infected products. These compounds, called mycotoxins, occur widely in nature and pose a great risk to human and animal health. The most relevant toxigenic fungal species belong to the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium. Mycotoxins are produced naturally in many agricultural crops. They can accumulate in food commodities in the field, after harvest, and during storage. Most of the important mycotoxins are resistant to most forms of food and feed processing. Several efforts are made to reduce mycotoxins in raw materials and processed food, both in pre-harvest stages inhibiting production of the toxins in the field, and in post-harvest by remediation strategies, reducing mycotoxin concentration in commodities. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
- Pitt, J., Understanding plant–fungus associations as a key to mycotoxin control (2008) Food Contaminants, , D. Siantar M. Trucksess P. Scott E. Herman ACS Symposium Series
- Shephard, G.S., Current status of mycotoxin analysis: a critical review (2016) J AOAC Int, 99, pp. 842-848
- CAST, Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant Animal and Human Systems. Report No. 139 (2003), Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Ames, Iowa, USA; Wu, F., Groopman, J.D., Pestka, J.J., Public health impact of foodborne mycotoxins (2014) Annu Rev Food Sci Technol, 5, pp. 351-372. , Excellent overview of major mycotoxins incidence in human health, especially in risk populations, and a very complete background on toxigenic fungi and susceptible crops
- Nesic, K., Milicevic, D., Nesic, V., Ivanovic, S., Mycotoxins as one of the foodborne risks most susceptible to climatic change (2015) Procedia Food Sci, 5, pp. 207-210
- Reddy, K.R.N., Salleh, B., Saad, B., Abbas, H.K., Abel, C.A., Shier, W.T., An overview of mycotoxin contamination in foods and its implications for human health (2010) Toxin Rev, 29, pp. 3-26
- Maestroni, B., Cannavan, A., Sampling strategies to control mycotoxins (2011) Determining Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Food and Feed, , S. De Saeger Woodhead Publishing Limited
- Pfliegler, W.P., Pusztahelyi, T., Pócsi, I., Mycotoxins—prevention and decontamination by yeasts (2015) J Basic Microbiol, 55, pp. 805-818
- Krska, R., de Nijs, M., McNerney, O., Pichler, M., Gilbert, J., Edwards, S., Suman, M., van der Fels-Klerx, H.J., Safe food and feed through an integrated toolbox for mycotoxin management: the MyToolBox approach (2016) World Mycotoxin J, 9, pp. 487-495
- Aiko, V., Mehta, A., Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins (2015) J Biosci, 40, pp. 943-954
- Aldars-García, L., Ramos, A.J., Sanchis, V., Marin, S., Modeling postharvest mycotoxins in foods: recent research (2016) Curr Opin Food Sci, 11, pp. 46-50
- Stoev, S.D., Balkan endemic nephropathy—still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans (2017) Chem Biol Interact, 261, pp. 63-79
- Lasram, S., Hamdi, Z., Chenenaoui, S., Mliki, A., Ghorbel, A., Comparative study of toxigenic potential of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger isolated from Barley as affected by temperature, water activity and carbon source (2016) J Stored Prod Res, 69, pp. 58-64
- Lahouar, A., Marin, S., Crespo-Sempere, A., Saïd, S., Sanchis, V., Influence of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and production of ochratoxin A and zearalenone by toxigenic Aspergillus tubingensis and Fusarium incarnatum isolates in sorghum seeds (2017) Int J Food Microbiol, 242, pp. 53-60
- Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006; Qi, L., Li, Y., Luo, X., Wang, R., Zheng, R., Wang, L., Li, Y., Chen, Z., Detoxification of zearalenone and ochratoxin A by ozone and quality evaluation of ozonized corn (2016) Food Addit Contam A, 33, pp. 1700-1710
- Nesic, K., Ivanovic, S., Nesic, V., Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi (2014) Rev Environ Contam Toxicol, 228, pp. 101-120. , This review is a very good update of the available data on this important group of toxins, its incidence in human and animal health and the most modern methods of prevention and control
- Marroquín-Cardona, A.G., Johnson, N.M., Phillips, T.D., Hayes, A.W.V., Mycotoxins in a changing global environment—a review (2014) Food Chem Toxicol, 69, pp. 220-230. , An interesting review focused on the new scenarios that will influence mycotoxin contamination and its impact on human and animal health and in the global economy
- Frisvad, J.C., Larsen, T.O., Thrane, U., Meijer, M., Varga, J., Samson, R., Nielsen, K.F., Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains (2011) PLoS One, 6, p. e23496
- Audenaert, K., Vanheule, A., Höfte, M., Haesaert, G., Deoxynivalenol: a major player in the multifaceted response of fusarium to its environment (2014) Toxins, 6, pp. 1-19
- Alassane-Kpembi, I., Puel, O., Oswald, I.P., Toxicological interactions between the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol: nivalenol and their acetylatedderivatives in intestinal epithelial cells (2015) Arch Toxicol, 89, pp. 1337-1346
- Hassan, Y.I., Watts, C., Li, X.Z., Zhou, T., A novel peptide-binding motifs inference approach to understand deoxynivalenol molecular toxicity (2015) Toxins, 7, pp. 1989-2005
- Patriarca, A., Alternaria in food products (2016) Curr Opin Food Sci, 11, pp. 1-9
- Fleck, S.C., Burkhardt, B., Pfeiffer, E., Metzler, M., Alternaria toxins: altertoxin II is a much stronger mutagen and DNA strand breaking mycotoxin than alternariol and its methyl ether in cultured mammalian cells (2012) Toxicol Lett, 214, pp. 27-32
- Schwarz, C., Kreutzer, M., Marko, D., Minor contribution of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and tenuazonic acid to the genotoxic properties of extracts from Alternaria alternata infested rice (2012) Toxicol Lett, 214, pp. 46-52
- Andersen, B., Nielsen, K.F., Fernández Pinto, V., Patriarca, A., Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat (2015) Int J Food Microbiol, 196, pp. 1-10
- Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food (2011) EFSA J, 9, pp. 2407-2504. , European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
- Zhu, Y., Hassan, Y., Watts, C., Zhou, T., Innovative technologies for the mitigation of mycotoxins in animal feed and ingredients—a review of recent patents (2016) Anim Feed Sci Technol, 216, pp. 19-29. , This review provides excellent information on methods of detoxification with high probability of application in food industry
- Karlovsky, P., Suman, M., Berthiller, F., De Meester, J., Eisenbrand, G., Perrin, I., Oswald, I., Dussort, P., Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination (2016) Mycotoxin Res, 32, pp. 197-205. , An original study on the influence of processing on mycotoxin levels and a very good description of which should be the priorities of future research on the subject
- Temba, B.A., Sultanbawa, Y., Kriticos, D.J., Fox, G.P., Harvey, J.J.W., Fletcher, M.T., Tools for defusing a major global food and feed safety risk: nonbiological postharvest procedures to decontaminate mycotoxins in foods and feeds (2016) J Agric Food Chem, 64, pp. 8959-8972
- Milani, J., Maleki, G., Effects of processing on mycotoxin stability in cereals (2014) J Sci Food Agric, 94, pp. 2372-2375
- Bethke, N.W., Conard, C.A., Fosdick, L.E., Fox, E.J., Grunig, D., Kirkvold, S.W., Ladhe, A.R., Peters, E.M., Method and apparatus for reducing aflatoxin–contaminated corn. US Patent Publication No. 8919569 B2, 2014; Miljkovic, D., Duell, B., Miljkovic, V., Low-mycotoxin coffee cherry products. US Patent Publication No. 7815959 B2, 2010; Zhu, Y., Koutchma, T., Warrinner, K., Zhou, T., Reduction of patulin in apple juice products by UV light of different wavelengths in the UVC range (2014) J Food Prot, 77, pp. 963-967
- Ouf, S.A., Basher, A.H., Mohamed, A.A., Inhibitory effect of double atmospheric pressure argon cold plasma on spores and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus niger contaminating date palm fruits (2015) J Sci Food Agric, 95, pp. 3204-3210
- Humer, E., Lucke, A., Harder, H., Metzler-Zebeli, B.U., Böhm, J., Zebeli, Q., Effects of citric and lactic acid on the reduction of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in feeds (2016) Toxins, 8, p. 285
- Tian, Y., Tan, Y., Liu, N., Liao, Y., Sun, C., Wang, S., Wu, A., Functional agents to biologically control deoxynivalenol contamination in cereal grains (2016) Front Microbiol, 7, p. 395
- da Cruz Cabral, L., Fernández Pinto, V., Patriarca, A., Control of infection of tomato fruits by Alternaria and mycotoxin production using plant extracts (2016) Eur J Plant Pathol, 145, pp. 363-373
- Zhou, T., Gong, J., Yu, H., Li, X.Z., Bacterial isolate and methods for detoxification of trichothecene mycotoxins. US Patent Publication No. 8642317 B2, 2014; Vanhoutte, I., Audenaert, K., De Gelder, L., Biodegradation of mycotoxins: tales from known and unexplored worlds (2016) Front Microbiol, 7, p. 561
- Verheecke, C., Liboz, T., Mathieu, F., Microbial degradation of aflatoxin B1: current status and future advances (2016) Int J Food Microbiol, 237, pp. 1-9
- Farbo, M.G., Urgeghe, P.P., Fiori, S., Marceddu, S., Jaoua, S., Migheli, Q., Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads (2016) Int J Food Microbiol, 217, pp. 29-34
- Piotrowska, M., Nowak, A., Czyzowska, A., Removal of ochratoxin A by wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (2013) Eur Food Res Technol, 236, pp. 441-447
- Repečkienė, J., Levinskaitė, L., Paškevičius, A., Raudonienė, V., Toxin-producing fungi on feed grains and application of yeasts for their detoxification (2013) Pol J Vet Sci, 16, pp. 391-393
- Hahn, I., Nagl, V., Schwartz-Zimmermann, H.E., Varga, E., Schwarz, C., Slavik, V., Reisinger, N., Generotti, S., Effects of orally administered fumonisin B1 (FB1), partially hydrolysed FB1, hydrolysed FB1 and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB1 on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats (2015) Food Chem Toxicol, 76, pp. 11-18
- Liu, J., Yi, P., Bacillus licheniformis and method for detoxification of zearalenone. US Patent Publication No. 8404477 B2, 2013; Davis, M.E., Rehberger, J., Novak, K., Rehberger, T.G., Strains and methods useful for mycotoxins. US Patent Application Publication No. 20130045185 A1, 2013; Schatzmayr, G., Heidler, D., Fuchs, E., Binder, E., Microorganism for biological detoxification of mycotoxins, namely ochratoxins and/or zearalenons, as well as method and use thereof. US Patent Publication No. 8119172 B2, 2012; Schatzmayr, G., Täubel, M., Vekiru, E., Binder, E., Micro-organism for decontaminating fumonisins and its use, method for decontaminating fumonisins and feed additives containing said micro-organism. EP Patent Publication No. 1860954 B1, 2012; Zhu, R., Feussner, K., Wu, T., Yan, F., Karlovsky, P., Zheng, X., Detoxification of mycotoxin patulin by the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum (2015) Food Chem, 179, pp. 1-5
- Zhu, R., Yu, T., Guo, S., Hu, H., Zheng, X., Karlovsky, P., Effect of the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest decay and patulin accumulation in apples and pears (2015) J Food Prot, 78, pp. 157-163
- Milani, J.M., Ecological conditions affecting mycotoxin production in cereals: a review (2013) Vet Med, 58, pp. 405-411
- Milona, K., Magan, N., Fusarium langsethiae: storage environment in fluences dry matter losses and T2 and HT-2 toxin contamination of oats (2011) J Stored Prod Res, 47, pp. 321-327
- Strub, C., Pocaznoi, D., Lebrihi, A., Fournier, R., Mathieu, F., Influence of barley malting operating parameters on T-2 and HT-2 toxinogenesis of Fusarium langsethiae, a worrying contaminant of malting barley in Europe (2010) Food Addit Contam A, 27, pp. 1247-1252
- Tannous, J., Atoui, A., El Khoury, A., Francis, Z., Oswald, I.P., Puel, O., Lteif, R., A study on the physicochemical parameters for Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production: effect of temperature, pH, and water activity (2016) Food Sci Nutr, 4, pp. 611-622
- Bircan, C., Koç, M., Aflatoxins in dried figs in turkey: a comparative survey on the exported and locally consumed dried figs for assessment of exposure (2012) J Agric Sci Technol, 14, pp. 1265-1274
- Pacheco, A.M., Scussel, V.M., Selenium and aflatoxin levels in raw Brazil nuts from the Amazon basin (2007) J Agric Food Chem, 55, pp. 11087-11092
- Mateo, R., Medina, A., Mateo, E.M., Mateo, F., Jiménez, M., An overview of ochratoxin A in beer and wine (2007) Int J Food Microbiol, 119, pp. 79-83
- Kuruc, J.A., Schwarz, P., Wolf-Hall, C., Ochratoxin A in stored U.S. barley and wheat (2015) J Food Prot, 78, pp. 597-601
- Zhang, X., Li, J., Zong, N., Zhou, Z., Ma, L., Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Chinese markets (2014) Food Addit Contam B, 7, pp. 157-161
- Morcia, C., Tumino, G., Ghizzoni, R., Badeck, F.W., Lattanzio, V.M.T., Pascale, M., Terzi, V., Occurrence of Fusarium langsethiae and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in Italian malting barley (2016) Toxins, 8, p. 247
- Zhang, J.B., Wang, J.H., Gong, A.D., Chen, F.F., Song, B., Li, X., Li, H.P., Liao, Y.C., Natural occurrence of fusarium head blight, mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing isolates of Fusarium in commercial fields of wheat in Hubei (2013) Plant Pathol, 62, pp. 92-102
- SCOOP Task, Collection of Occurrence Data of Fusarium Toxins in Food and Assessment of Dietary Intake by the Population of EU Member States. Final Report SCOOP Task 3.2.10 (2003), https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/cs_contaminants_catalogue_fusarium_task3210.pdf; Sarubbi, F., Formisano, G., Auriemma, G., Arrichiello, A., Palomba, R., Patulin in homogenized fruit's and tomato products (2016) Food Control, 59, pp. 420-423
- Rychlik, M., Lepper, H., Weidner, C., Asam, S., Risk evaluation of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid in foods for adults and infants and subsequent risk management (2016) Food Control, 68, pp. 181-185
---------- APA ----------Patriarca, A. & Fernández Pinto, V.
. Prevalence of mycotoxins in foods and decontamination, 14, 50-60.
---------- CHICAGO ----------Patriarca, A., Fernández Pinto, V.
"Prevalence of mycotoxins in foods and decontamination"
(2017) : 50-60.
---------- MLA ----------Patriarca, A., Fernández Pinto, V.
"Prevalence of mycotoxins in foods and decontamination"
, vol. 14, 2017, pp. 50-60.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------Patriarca, A., Fernández Pinto, V. Prevalence of mycotoxins in foods and decontamination. 2017;14:50-60.