Artículo

Youngblood, A.; France, K.; Loyd, R.O.P.; Brown, A.; Mason, J.P.; Schneider, P.C.; Tilley, M.A.; Berta-Thompson, Z.K.; Buccino, A.; Froning, C.S.; Hawley, S.L.; Linsky, J.; Mauas, P.J.D.; Redfield, S.; Kowalski, A.; Miguel, Y.; Newton, E.R.; Rugheimer, S. (...) Vieytes, M. "The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs" (2017) Astrophysical Journal. 843(1)
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor

Abstract:

Characterizing the UV spectral energy distribution (SED) of an exoplanet host star is critically important for assessing its planet's potential habitability, particularly for M dwarfs, as they are prime targets for current and near-term exoplanet characterization efforts and atmospheric models predict that their UV radiation can produce photochemistry on habitable zone planets different from that on Earth. To derive ground-based proxies for UV emission for use when Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations are unavailable, we have assembled a sample of 15 early to mid-M dwarfs observed by HST and compared their nonsimultaneous UV and optical spectra. We find that the equivalent width of the chromospheric Ca ii K line at 3933 Å, when corrected for spectral type, can be used to estimate the stellar surface flux in ultraviolet emission lines, including H i Lyα. In addition, we address another potential driver of habitability: energetic particle fluxes associated with flares. We present a new technique for estimating soft X-ray and >10 MeV proton flux during far-UV emission line flares (Si iv and He ii) by assuming solar-like energy partitions. We analyze several flares from the M4 dwarf GJ 876 observed with HST and Chandra as part of the MUSCLES Treasury Survey and find that habitable zone planets orbiting GJ 876 are impacted by large Carrington-like flares with peak soft X-ray fluxes ≥10 -3 W m -2 and possible proton fluxes ∼10 2 -10 3 pfu, approximately four orders of magnitude more frequently than modern-day Earth. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Registro:

Documento: Artículo
Título:The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs
Autor:Youngblood, A.; France, K.; Loyd, R.O.P.; Brown, A.; Mason, J.P.; Schneider, P.C.; Tilley, M.A.; Berta-Thompson, Z.K.; Buccino, A.; Froning, C.S.; Hawley, S.L.; Linsky, J.; Mauas, P.J.D.; Redfield, S.; Kowalski, A.; Miguel, Y.; Newton, E.R.; Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Roberge, A.; Vieytes, M.
Filiación:Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 600 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, United States
Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave., Boulder, CO 80305, United States
Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, United States
European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, Noordwijk, 2201 AZ, Netherlands
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
NASA, Astrobiology Institute Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Box 351580, U.W. Seattle, WA 98195, United States
Astrobiology Program, University of Washington, 3910 15th Ave. NE, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
Dpto. de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (FCEN), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires, Argentina
Instituto de Astronomía y Física Del Espacio (IAFE CONICET-UBA), Casilla de Correo 67, Buenos Aires, 1428, Argentina
Department of Astronomy, McDonald Observatory, C1400, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, United States
Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195, United States
JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, United States
Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, United States
National Solar Observatory, University of Colorado Boulder, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303, United States
Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Boulevard de l'Observatoire, CS 34229, NICE Cedex 4, F-06304, France
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138, United States
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of St. Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St. Andrews, KY16 9AL, United Kingdom
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, United States
Palabras clave:stars: chromospheres; stars: low-mass; Sun: flares
Año:2017
Volumen:843
Número:1
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa76dd
Título revista:Astrophysical Journal
Título revista abreviado:Astrophys. J.
ISSN:0004637X
Registro:http://digital.bl.fcen.uba.ar/collection/paper/document/paper_0004637X_v843_n1_p_Youngblood

Referencias:

  • Airapetian, V.S., Glocer, A., Gronoff, G., Hébrard, E., Danchi, W., (2016) NatGe, 9, p. 452
  • Anglada-Escudé, G., Rojas-Ayala, B., Boss, A.P., Weinberger, A.J., Lloyd, J.P., (2013) A&A, 551, p. A48
  • Arney, G.N., Meadows, V.S., Domagal-Goldman, S.D., (2017) ApJ, 836 (1), p. 49
  • Barks, H.L., Buckley, R., Grieves, G.A., (2010) ChemBioChem, 11, p. 1240
  • Belov, A., Garcia, H., Kurt, V., Mavromichalaki, H., Gerontidou, M., (2005) SoPh, 229, p. 135
  • Belov, A., Kurt, V., Mavromichalaki, H., Gerontidou, M., (2007) SoPh, 246, p. 457
  • Benedict, G.F., McArthur, B., Nelan, E., (1998) AJ, 116 (1), p. 429
  • Berta, Z.K., Charbonneau, D., Bean, J., (2011) ApJ, 736 (1), p. 12
  • Berta-Thompson, Z.K., Irwin, J., Charbonneau, D., (2015) Natur, 527, p. 204
  • Bourrier, V., Ehrenreich, D., Wheatley, P.J., (2017) A&A, 599, p. 3
  • Bourrier, V., Lecavelier Des Etangs, A., Ehrenreich, D., Tanaka, Y.A., Vidotto, A.A., (2016) A&A, 591, p. A121
  • Browning, M.K., (2008) ApJ, 676 (2), p. 1262
  • Buccino, A.P., Petrucci, R., Jofré, E., Mauas, P.J.D., (2014) ApJL, 781, p. L9
  • Busà, I., Aznar Cuadrado, R., Terranegra, L., Andretta, V., Gomez, M.T., (2007) A&A, 466, p. 1089
  • Butler, C.J., Rodono, M., Foing, B.H., (1988) A&A, 206, p. L1
  • Chabrier, G., Küker, M., (2006) A&A, 446, p. 1027
  • Chadney, J., Galand, M., Unruh, Y., Koskinen, T., Sanz-Forcada, J., (2015) Icar, 250, p. 357
  • Cincunegui, C., Díaz, R.F., Mauas, P.J.D., (2007) A&A, 469, p. 309
  • Cincunegui, C., Mauas, P.J.D., (2004) A&A, 414, p. 699
  • Cliver, E.W., Dietrich, W.F., (2013) JSWSC, 3, p. A31
  • Cliver, E.W., Ling, A.G., Belov, A., Yashiro, S., (2012) ApJL, 756, p. L29
  • Cohen, O., Drake, J.J., Glocer, A., (2014) ApJ, 790 (1), p. 57
  • Crosley, M.K., Osten, R.A., Broderick, J.W., (2016) ApJ, 830 (1), p. 24
  • Cully, S.L., Fisher, G.H., Abbott, M.J., Siegmund, O.H.W., (1994) ApJ, 435, p. 449
  • Davenport, J.R.A., Kipping, D.M., Sasselov, D., Matthews, J.M., Cameron, C., (2016) ApJL, 829, p. L31
  • Demory, B.-O., Ségransan, D., Forveille, T., (2009) A&A, 505, p. 205
  • Dere, K.P., Landi, E., Mason, H.E., Monsignori Fossi, B.C., Young, P.R., (1997) A&AS, 125, p. 149
  • Díaz, R.F., Cincunegui, C., Mauas, P.J.D., (2007) MNRAS, 378, p. 1007
  • Dobler, W., Stix, M., Brandenburg, A., (2006) ApJ, 638 (1), p. 336
  • Domagal-Goldman, S.D., Segura, A., Claire, M.W., Robinson, T.D., Meadows, V.S., (2014) ApJ, 792 (2), p. 90
  • Domingo, V., Ermolli, I., Fox, P., (2009) SSRv, 145, p. 337
  • Drake, J.J., Cohen, O., Garraffo, C., Kashyap, V., (2016) IAU Symp. 320, Solar and Stellar Flares and Their Effects on Planets, p. 196. , ed A. Kosovichev, S. Hawley and P. Heinzel (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press)
  • Drake, J.J., Cohen, O., Yashiro, S., Gopalswamy, N., (2013) ApJ, 764 (2), p. 170
  • Dressing, C.D., Charbonneau, D., (2015) ApJ, 807 (1), p. 45
  • Fontenla, J., Witbrod, J., Linsky, J.L., (2016) ApJ, 830 (2), p. 154
  • Fontenla, J.M., Landi, E., Snow, M., Woods, T., (2014) SoPh, 289, p. 515
  • Fossati, L., Marcelja, S.E., Staab, D., (2017) A&A, 601, p. 104
  • France, K., Froning, C.S., Linsky, J.L., (2013) ApJ, 763 (2), p. 149
  • France, K., Linsky, J.L., Tian, F., Froning, C.S., Roberge, A., (2012) ApJL, 750, p. L32
  • France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., Youngblood, A., (2016) ApJ, 820 (2), p. 89
  • Fuhrmeister, B., Schmitt, J.H.M.M., (2004) A&A, 420, p. 1079
  • Gao, P., Hu, R., Robinson, T.D., Li, C., Yung, Y.L., (2015) ApJ, 806 (2), p. 249
  • Golding, T.P., Carlsson, M., Leenaarts, J., (2014) ApJ, 784 (1), p. 30
  • Golding, T.P., Leenaarts, J., Carlsson, M., (2016) ApJ, 817 (2), p. 125
  • Gomes da Silva, J., Santos, N.C., Bonfils, X., (2011) A&A, 534, p. A30
  • Guinan, E.F., Engle, S.G., Durbin, A., (2016) ApJ, 821 (2), p. 81
  • Harman, C.E., Schwieterman, E.W., SchottelKotte, J.C., Kasting, J.F., (2015) ApJ, 812 (2), p. 137
  • Harra, L.K., Schrijver, C.J., Janvier, M., (2016) SoPh, 291, p. 1761
  • Hawley, S.L., Davenport, J.R.A., Kowalski, A.F., (2014) ApJ, 797 (2), p. 121
  • Hawley, S.L., Gizis, J.E., Reid, I.N., (1996) AJ, 112, p. 2799
  • Hawley, S.L., Johns-Krull, C.M., (2003) ApJL, 588, p. L109
  • Hawley, S.L., Pettersen, B.R., (1991) ApJ, 378, p. 725
  • Henry, T.J., Jao, W.-C., Subasavage, J.P., (2006) AJ, 132 (6), p. 2360
  • Henry, T.J., Kirkpatrick, J.D., Simons, D.A., (1994) AJ, 108, p. 1437
  • Houdebine, E.R., Foing, B.H., Rodono, M., (1990) A&A, 238, p. 249
  • Houdebine, E.R., Mullan, D.J., Paletou, F., Gebran, M., (2016) ApJ, 822 (2), p. 97
  • Hovestadt, D., Hoefner, H., Klecker, B., (1981) ApJL, 246, p. L81
  • Hu, R., Seager, S., Bains, W., (2012) ApJ, 761 (2), p. 166
  • Hudson, H.S., (2007) ApJL, 663, p. L45
  • Hunter, J.D., (2007) CSE, 9, p. 90
  • Hunt-Walker, N.M., Hilton, E.J., Kowalski, A.F., Hawley, S.L., Matthews, J.M., (2012) PASP, 124 (916), p. 545
  • Husser, T.-O., Wende-Von Berg, S., Dreizler, S., (2013) A&A, 553, p. A6
  • Jao, W.-C., Henry, T.J., Subasavage, J.P., (2005) AJ, 129 (4), p. 1954
  • Jenkins, L.F., (1952) General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, , (Hartford, CT: Yale Univ. Observatory)
  • Jordan, C., (1975) MNRAS, 170, p. 429
  • Kahler, S.W., (1982) JGR, 87, p. 3439
  • Kay, C., Opher, M., Kornbleuth, M., (2016) ApJ, 826 (2), p. 195
  • Kennedy, M.B., Milligan, R.O., Mathioudakis, M., Keenan, F.P., (2013) ApJ, 779 (1), p. 84
  • Kerwin, B.A., Remmele, R.L., (2007) J. Pharm. Sci., 96, p. 1468
  • Kiplinger, A.L., Garcia, H.A., (2004) BAAS, 36, p. 739
  • Kopparapu, R.K., Ramirez, R.M., SchottelKotte, J., (2014) ApJL, 787, p. L29
  • Kraus, A.L., Tucker, R.A., Thompson, M.I., Craine, E.R., Hillenbrand, L.A., (2011) ApJ, 728 (1), p. 48
  • Krucker, S., Lin, R.P., (2000) ApJL, 542, p. L61
  • Lammer, H., Lichtenegger, H.I.M., Kulikov, Y.N., (2007) AsBio, 7, p. 185
  • Landi, E., Young, P.R., Dere, K.P., Del Zanna, G., Mason, H.E., (2013) ApJ, 763 (2), p. 86
  • Lingenfelter, R.E., Hudson, H.S., (1980) The Ancient Sun: Fossil Record in the Earth, Moon and Meteorites, p. 69. , ed R. O. Pepin, J. A. Eddy and R. B. Merrill (Oxford: Pergamon)
  • Linsky, J.L., Fontenla, J., France, K., (2014) ApJ, 780 (1), p. 61
  • Linsky, J.L., France, K., Ayres, T., (2013) ApJ, 766 (2), p. 69
  • Lorenzo-Oliveira, D., De Mello, G.F.P., Dutra-Ferreira, L., Ribas, I., (2016) A&A, 595, p. A11
  • Loyd, R.O.P., France, K., (2014) ApJS, 211 (1), p. 9
  • Loyd, R.O.P., France, K., Youngblood, A., (2016) ApJ, 824 (2), p. 102
  • Luger, R., Barnes, R., (2015) AsBio, 15, p. 119
  • Lurie, J.C., Henry, T.J., Jao, W.-C., (2014) AJ, 148 (5), p. 91
  • Marsden, S.C., Carter, B.D., Donati, J.-F., (2009) MNRAS, 399, p. 888
  • Mason, J.P., Woods, T.N., Caspi, A., Thompson, B.J., Hock, R.A., (2014) ApJ, 789 (1), p. 61
  • Matsunaga, T., Hieda, K., Nikaido, O., (1991) Photochem. Photobio., 54, p. 403
  • Mauas, P.J.D., Falchi, A., Pasquini, L., Pallavicini, R., (1997) A&A, 326, p. 249
  • McCarthy, K., White, R.J., (2012) AJ, 143 (6), p. 134
  • McKinney, W., (2010) Proc. 9th Python in Science Conf., 51. , http://conference.scipy.org/proceedings/scipy2010/mckinney.html, ed S. van der Walt and J. Millman
  • Miguel, Y., Kaltenegger, L., Linsky, J.L., Rugheimer, S., (2015) MNRAS, 446, p. 345
  • Milligan, R.O., Kennedy, M.B., Mathioudakis, M., Keenan, F.P., (2012) ApJL, 755, p. L16
  • Mitra-Kraev, U., Harra, L.K., Gdel, M., (2005) A&A, 431, p. 679
  • Neves, V., Bonfils, X., Santos, N.C., (2014) A&A, 568, p. A121
  • Newton, E.R., Irwin, J., Charbonneau, D., Berta-Thompson, Z.K., Dittmann, J.A., (2016) ApJL, 821, p. L19
  • Noyes, R.W., Hartmann, L.W., Baliunas, S.L., Duncan, D.K., Vaughan, A.H., (1984) ApJ, 279, p. 763
  • Osten, R.A., Bastian, T.S., (2006) ApJ, 637 (2), p. 1016
  • Osten, R.A., Kowalski, A., Drake, S.A., (2016) ApJ, 832 (2), p. 174
  • Osten, R.A., Wolk, S.J., (2015) ApJ, 809 (1), p. 79
  • Parker, E.N., (1958) ApJ, 128, p. 664
  • Patel, B.H., Percivalle, C., Ritson, D.J., Duffy, C.D., Sutherland, J.D., (2015) NatCh, 7, p. 301
  • Perez, F., Granger, B.E., (2007) CSE, 9, p. 21
  • Pettersen, B.R., (1980) AJ, 85, p. 871
  • Rauscher, E., Marcy, G., (2006) PASP, 118 (842), p. 617
  • Redfield, S., Linsky, J.L., (2002) ApJS, 139 (2), p. 439
  • Redfield, S., Linsky, J.L., (2004) ApJ, 602 (2), p. 776
  • Reiners, A., Basri, G., (2008) A&A, 489, p. L45
  • Ribas, I., Bolmont, E., Selsis, F., (2016) A&A, 596, p. A111
  • Ritson, D., Sutherland, J.D., (2012) NatCh, 4, p. 895
  • Rivera, E.J., Lissauer, J.J., Butler, R.P., (2005) ApJ, 634 (1), p. 625
  • Robertson, P., Roy, A., Mahadevan, S., (2015) ApJL, 805, p. L22
  • Robitaille, T.P., Tollerud, E.J., Greenfield, P., (2013) A&A, 558, p. A33
  • Rodger, C.J., Verronen, P.T., Clilverd, M.A., Seppälä, A., Turunen, E., (2008) JGR, 113
  • Roizman, G.S., (1984) SvAL, 10, p. 116
  • Rugheimer, S., Kaltenegger, L., Segura, A., Linsky, J., Mohanty, S., (2015) ApJ, 809 (1), p. 57
  • Sanz-Forcada, J., Micela, G., Ribas, I., (2011) A&A, 532, p. A6
  • Scalo, J., Kaltenegger, L., Segura, A., (2007) AsBio, 7, p. 85
  • Schrijver, C.J., Cote, J., Zwaan, C., Saar, S.H., (1989) ApJ, 337, p. 964
  • Sciambi, R.K., Gloeckler, G., Fan, C.Y., Hovestadt, D., (1977) ApJ, 214, p. 316
  • Segura, A., Kasting, J.F., Meadows, V., (2005) AsBio, 5, p. 706
  • Segura, A., Krelove, K., Kasting, J.F., (2003) AsBio, 3, p. 689
  • Segura, A., Meadows, V.S., Kasting, J.F., Crisp, D., Cohen, M., (2007) A&A, 472, p. 665
  • Segura, A., Walkowicz, L.M., Meadows, V., Kasting, J., Hawley, S., (2010) AsBio, 10, p. 751
  • Senanayake, S.D., Idriss, H., (2006) PNAS, 103, p. 1194
  • Shields, A.L., Ballard, S., Johnson, J.A., (2016), arXiv:1610.05765; Shine, R., Gerola, H., Linsky, J.L., (1975) ApJL, 202, p. L101
  • Shkolnik, E.L., Barman, T.S., (2014) AJ, 148 (4), p. 64
  • Shkolnik, E.L., Rolph, K.A., Peacock, S., Barman, T.S., (2014) ApJL, 796, p. L20
  • Suárez Mascareño, A., Rebolo, R., González Hernández, J.I., Esposito, M., (2015) MNRAS, 452, p. 2745
  • Sun, X., Bobra, M.G., Hoeksema, J.T., (2015) ApJL, 804, p. L28
  • Tevini, M., (1993) UV-B Radiation and Ozone Depletion: Effects on Humans, Animals, Plants, Microorganisms, and Materials, , (Boca Raton, FL: Lewis)
  • Thalmann, J.K., Su, Y., Temmer, M., Veronig, A.M., (2015) ApJL, 801, p. L23
  • Tian, F., France, K., Linsky, J.L., Mauas, P.J., Vieytes, M.C., (2014) E&PSL, 385, p. 22
  • Tilley, M.A., Harnett, E.M., Winglee, R.M., (2016) ApJ, 827 (1), p. 77
  • Tlatov, A.G., Dormidontov, D.V., Kirpichev, R.V., Pashchenko, M.P., Shramko, A.D., (2015) Ge&Ae, 55, p. 961
  • Van Der Walt, S., Colbert, S.C., Varoquaux, G., (2011) CSE, 13, p. 22
  • Van Leeuwen, F., (2007) A&A, 474, p. 653
  • Vaughan, A.H., Preston, G.W., Wilson, O.C., (1978) PASP, 90 (535), p. 267
  • Venot, O., Rocchetto, M., Carl, S., Hashim, A.R., Decin, L., (2016) ApJ, 830 (2), p. 77
  • Veronig, A., Temmer, M., Hanslmeier, A., Otruba, W., Messerotti, M., (2002) A&A, 382, p. 1070
  • Vidotto, A.A., Donati, J.-F., Jardine, M., (2016) MNRAS, 455, p. L52
  • Voet, D., Gratzer, W.B., Cox, R.A., Doty, P., (1963) Biopolymers, 1, p. 193
  • Vogt, S.S., Penrod, G.D., Soderblom, D.R., (1983) ApJ, 269, p. 250
  • Von Braun, K., Boyajian, T.S., Kane, S.R., (2011) ApJL, 729, p. L26
  • Von Braun, K., Boyajian, T.S., Kane, S.R., (2012) ApJ, 753 (2), p. 171
  • Von Braun, K., Boyajian, T.S., Van Belle, G.T., (2014) MNRAS, 438, p. 2413
  • Walkowicz, L.M., Hawley, S.L., (2009) AJ, 137 (2), p. 3297
  • West, A.A., Weisenburger, K.L., Irwin, J., (2015) ApJ, 812 (1), p. 3
  • White, R.J., Schaefer, G., Ten Brummelaar, T., (2015) BAAS, 225, p. 34812
  • Wilson, O.C., (1978) ApJ, 226, p. 379
  • Winter, L.M., Ledbetter, K., (2015) ApJ, 809 (1), p. 105
  • Wood, B.E., Müller, H.-R., Redfield, S., Edelman, E., (2014) ApJL, 781, p. L33
  • Wood, B.E., Müller, H.-R., Zank, G.P., Linsky, J.L., Redfield, S., (2005) ApJL, 628, p. L143
  • Wood, B.E., Redfield, S., Linsky, J.L., Muller, H., Zank, G.P., (2005) ApJS, 159 (1), p. 118
  • Woods, T.N., Caspi, A., Chamberlin, P.C., (2017) ApJ, 835 (2), p. 122
  • Woods, T.N., Eparvier, F.G., Hock, R., (2012) SoPh, 275, p. 115
  • Wordsworth, R., Pierrehumbert, R., (2014) ApJL, 785, p. L20
  • Xie, H., Mäkelä, P., Gopalswamy, N., St Cyr, O.C., (2016) JGR, 121, p. 6168
  • Yadav, R.K., Christensen, U.R., Morin, J., (2015) ApJL, 813, p. L31
  • Yashiro, S., Akiyama, S., Gopalswamy, N., Howard, R.A., (2006) ApJL, 650, p. L143
  • Youngblood, A., France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., (2016) ApJ, 824 (2), p. 101

Citas:

---------- APA ----------
Youngblood, A., France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., Brown, A., Mason, J.P., Schneider, P.C., Tilley, M.A.,..., Vieytes, M. (2017) . The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs. Astrophysical Journal, 843(1).
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa76dd
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Youngblood, A., France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., Brown, A., Mason, J.P., Schneider, P.C., et al. "The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs" . Astrophysical Journal 843, no. 1 (2017).
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa76dd
---------- MLA ----------
Youngblood, A., France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., Brown, A., Mason, J.P., Schneider, P.C., et al. "The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs" . Astrophysical Journal, vol. 843, no. 1, 2017.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa76dd
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Youngblood, A., France, K., Loyd, R.O.P., Brown, A., Mason, J.P., Schneider, P.C., et al. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey. IV. Scaling Relations for Ultraviolet, Ca II K, and Energetic Particle Fluxes from M Dwarfs. Astrophys. J. 2017;843(1).
http://dx.doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aa76dd