Carranza, M.M.; Gille, S.T.; Piola, A.R.; Charo, M.; Romero, S.I. "Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence" (2017) Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 122(3):2401-2421
Estamos trabajando para incorporar este artículo al repositorio
Consulte el artículo en la página del editor
Consulte la política de Acceso Abierto del editor


The South-Atlantic Patagonian shelf is the largest chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) hot spot in Southern Ocean color images. While a persistent 1500 km long band of high Chl-a along the shelf-break front (SBF) is indicative of upwelling, the mechanisms that drive it are not entirely known. Along-front wind oscillations can enhance upwelling and provide a nutrient pumping mechanism at shelf-break fronts of western boundary currents. Here we assess wind-induced upwelling at the SBF off Patagonia from daily satellite Chl-a and winds, historical hydrographic observations, cross-shelf Chl-a fluorescence transects from two cruises, and in situ winds and water column structure from a mooring site. Satellite Chl-a composites segregated by along-front wind direction indicate that surface Chl-a is enhanced at the SBF with southerly winds and suppressed with northerly winds. Northerly winds also result in enhanced Chl-a further offshore (∼25–50 km). Synoptic transects as well as mean hydrographic sections segregated by along-front winds show isopycnals tilted upward for southerly winds. Spring observations from the mooring also suggest that southerly winds destratify the water column and northerly winds restratify, in agreement with Ekman transport interacting with the front. Moreover, changes in water column temperature lag along-front wind forcing by 2–4 days. Our results suggest that oscillations in along-front winds, on timescales typical of atmospheric storms (2–10 days), can significantly modulate the upwelling and Chl-a concentrations at the SBF off Patagonia, revealing the importance of wind-induced upwelling for shelf-slope exchange at shelf-break fronts of western boundary currents. © 2017. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Documento: Artículo
Título:Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence
Autor:Carranza, M.M.; Gille, S.T.; Piola, A.R.; Charo, M.; Romero, S.I.
Filiación:Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
Departamento Oceanografía, Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Departamento Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina and Instituto Franco-Argentino sobre Estudios de Clima y sus Impactos, CNRS/CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Palabras clave:along-front winds; chlorophyll-a; Patagonian shelf; shelf-break front upwelling; shelf-slope exchange; wind modulation; Ekman transport; frontal feature; isopycnal layer; shelf break front; slope dynamics; storm; upwelling; western boundary current; wind direction; wind forcing; Atlantic Ocean; Patagonia; Patagonian Shelf; Southern Ocean
Página de inicio:2401
Página de fin:2421
Título revista:Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
Título revista abreviado:J. Geophys. Res. Oceans


  • Acha, E., Mianzan, H., Guerrero, R., Favero, M., Bava, J., Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America: Physical and ecological processes (2004) J. Mar. Syst., 44 (1-2), pp. 83-105
  • Aikman, F., Ou, H.W., Houghton, R.W., Current variability across the New-England continental shelf-break and slope (1988) Cont. Shelf Res., 8 (5-7), pp. 625-651
  • Arruda, R., Calil, P.H.R., Bianchi, A.A., Doney, S.C., Gruber, N., Lima, I., Turi, G., Air-sea CO2 fluxes and the controls on ocean surface pCO2 seasonal variability in the coastal and open-ocean southwestern Atlantic Ocean: A modeling study (2015) Biogeosciences, 12 (19), pp. 5793-5809
  • Artana, C., Ferrari, R., Koenig, Z., Saraceno, M., Piola, A.R., Provost, C., Malvinas Current variability from Argo floats and satellite altimetry (2016) J. Geophys. Res.: Oceans, 121, pp. 4854-4872
  • Atlas, R., Hoffman, R.N., Ardizzone, J., Leidner, S.M., Jusem, J.C., Smith, D.K., Gombos, D., A cross-calibrated, multiplatform ocean surface wind velocity product for meteorological and oceanographic applications (2011) Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92 (2), pp. 157-174
  • Bianchi, A.A., Vertical stratification and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian shelf (2005) J. Geophys. Res., 110, p. C07003
  • Bianchi, A.A., Pino, D.R., Perlender, H.G.I., Osiroff, A.P., Segura, V., Lutz, V., Clara, M.L., Piola, A.R., Annual balance and seasonal variability of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonia Sea: Their relationship with fronts and chlorophyll distribution (2009) J. Geophys. Res., 114, p. C03018
  • Bisbal, G.A., The Southeast South American shelf large marine ecosystem: Evolution and components (1995) Mar. Policy, 19 (1), pp. 21-38
  • Bogazzi, E., Baldoni, A., Rivas, A., Martos, P., Reta, R., Orensanz, J.L., Lasta, M., Werner, F., Spatial correspondence between areas of concentration of Patagonian scallop (Zygochlamys patagonica) and frontal systems in the southwestern Atlantic (2005) Fish. Oceanogr., 14 (5), pp. 359-376
  • Bourassa, M.A., Rodriguez, E., Gaston, R., NASA's ocean vector winds science team workshops (2010) Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91 (7), pp. 925-928
  • Bretherton, C.S., Widmann, M., Dymnikov, V.P., Wallace, J.M., The effective number of spatial degrees of freedom of a time-varying field (1999) J. Clim., 12, pp. 1990-2009. , BladeIlean
  • Brink, K.H., Cross-shelf exchange (2016) Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 8 (1), pp. 59-78
  • Campagna, C., Piola, A.R., Rosa Marin, M., Lewis, M., Fernández, T., Southern elephant seal trajectories, fronts and eddies in the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence (2006) Deep Sea Res., Part I, 53 (12), pp. 1907-1924
  • Carr, M.E., Kearns, E.J., Production regimes in four Eastern Boundary Current systems (2003) Deep Sea Res., Part II, 50 (22-26), pp. 3199-3221
  • Carranza, M.M., Gille, S.T., Southern Ocean wind-driven entrainment enhances satellite chlorophyll-a through the summer (2015) J. Geophys. Res., 120, pp. 304-323
  • Carreto, J.I., A. Lutz, V., Carignan, M.O., Colleoni, A., De Marco, S.G., Hydrography and chlorophyll-a in a transect from the coast to the shelf-break in the Argentinian Sea (1995) Cont. Shelf Res., 15 (2-3), pp. 315-336
  • Carreto, J.I., Montoya, N.G., Carignan, M.O., Akselman, R., Acha, E.M., Derisio, C., Environmental and biological factors controlling the spring phytoplankton bloom at the Patagonian shelf-break front—Degraded fucoxanthin pigments and the importance of microzooplankton grazing (2016) Prog. Oceanogr., 146, pp. 1-21
  • Chapman, D.C., Sensitivity of a model shelfbreak front to the parameterization of vertical mixing (2002) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, pp. 3291-3298
  • Chapman, D.C., Lentz, S.J., Trapping of a coastal density front by the bottom boundary layer (1994) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24 (7), pp. 1464-1479
  • Charo, M., Piola, A., Hydrographic data from the GEF Patagonia cruises (2014) Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, pp. 265-271
  • Chavez, F.P., Messié, M., (2009) Prog. Oceanogr., 83, pp. 80-96. , A comparison of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem
  • Chelton, D.B., Satellite measurements reveal persistent small-scale features in ocean winds (2004) Science, 303 (5660), pp. 978-983
  • Combes, V., Matano, R.P., A two-way nested simulation of the oceanic circulation in the Southwestern Atlantic (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 731-756
  • Davis, R.E., Techniques for statistical analysis and prediction of geophysical fluid systems (1977) Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 8 (1), pp. 245-277
  • de Boyer Montégut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A.S., Lazar, A., Iudicone, D., Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology (2004) J. Geophys. Res., 109, p. C12003
  • Eichler, T.P., Gottschalck, J., A comparison of southern hemisphere cyclone track climatology and interannual variability in coarse-gridded reanalysis datasets (2013) Adv. Meteorol., 2013 (19), pp. 1-16
  • Falabella, V., (2009) Atlas del Mar Patagónico. Especies y Espacios, , edited by, V Falabella, C. Campagnay, J. Croxall, Wildlife Conserv. Soc. and BirdLife Int., Buenos Aire
  • Franco, B.C., Piola, A.R., Rivas, A.L., Baldoni, A., Pisoni, J.P., Multiple thermal fronts near the Patagonian shelf break (2008) Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, p. L02607
  • Franks, P.J.S., Phytoplankton blooms at fronts: Patterns, scales and physical forcing mechanisms (1992) Rev. Aquat. Sci., 6 (2), pp. 121-137
  • Franks, P.J.S., Walstad, L.J., Phytoplankton patches at fronts: A model of formation and response to wind events (1997) J. Mar. Res., 55 (1), pp. 1-29
  • Fratantoni, P.S., Pickart, R.S., Variability of the shelf break jet in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Internally or externally forced? (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108 (C5), p. 3166
  • Garcia, V.M.T., Garcia, C.A.E., Mata, M.M., Pollery, R.C., Piola, A.R., Signorini, S.R., Mcclain, C.R., Iglesias-Rodriguez, M.D., Environmental factors controlling the phytoplankton blooms at the Patagonia shelf-break in spring (2008) Deep Sea Res., Part I, 55 (9), pp. 1150-1166
  • Gawarkiewicz, G., Chapman, D.C., The role of stratification in the formation and maintenance of shelf-break fronts (1992) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, pp. 753-773
  • Gómez, M.I., Piola, A., Kattner, G., Alder, V.A., Biomass of autotrophic dinoflagellates under weak vertical stratification and contrasting chlorophyll levels in subantarctic shelf waters (2011) J. Plankton Res., 33 (8), pp. 1304-1310
  • Goni, G.J., Bringas, F., Dinezio, P.N., Observed low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front (2011) J. Geophys. Res., 116, p. C10037
  • Guerrero, R.A., Piola, A.R., Masas de agua en la plataforma continental (1997) El Mar Argentino y sus Recursos Pesqueros, 1, pp. 107-118
  • Guerrero, R.A., Piola, A.R., Fenco, H., Matano, R.P., Combes, V., Chao, Y., James, C., Strub, P.T., The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 7794-7810
  • Hales, B., Vaillancourt, R.D., Prieto, L., Marra, J., Houghton, R., Hebert, D., (2009) J. Mar. Syst., 78 (3), pp. 426-441
  • He, R., Chen, K., Fennel, K., Gawarkiewicz, G.G., McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr., Seasonal and interannual variability of physical and biological dynamics at the shelfbreak front of the Middle Atlantic Bight: Nutrient supply mechanisms (2011) Biogeosciences, 8 (10), pp. 2935-2946
  • Heileman, S., (2009), 182, pp. 735-746. , Patagonian shelf LME, in, The UNEP Large Marine Ecosystem Report A Perspective on Changing Conditions in LMEs of the World's Regional Seas, edited by K. ShermanG. Hempel, UNEP Regional Seas Report and Studies,, UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya; Houghton, R.W., Aikman, F., Ou, H.W., Shelf-slope frontal structure and cross-shelf exchange at the New-England shelf-break (1988) Cont. Shelf Res., 8 (5-7), pp. 687-710
  • Hutchinson, D.K., Hogg, A.M.C., Blundell, J.R., Southern ocean response to relative velocity wind stress forcing (2010) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40 (2), pp. 326-339
  • (2004), 4. , Guide to the creation and use of ocean-colour, Level-3, binned data products, in, Reports of the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group, Dartmouth, Canada; Jones, D.A., Simmonds, I., A climatology of southern-hemisphere extratropical cyclones (1993) Clim. Dyn., 9 (3), pp. 131-145
  • Kelly, K.A., Dickinson, S., McPhaden, M.J., Johnson, G.C., Ocean currents evident in satellite wind data (2001) Geophys. Res. Lett., 28 (1), pp. 2469-2472
  • Klein, P., Coste, B., Effects of wind-stress variability on nutrient transport into the mixed layer (1984) Deep Sea Res., Part A, 31 (1), pp. 21-37
  • Klein, P., Hua, B., Mesoscale heterogeneity of the wind-driven mixed layer: Influence of a quasigeostrophic flow (1988) J. Mar. Res., 46, pp. 495-525
  • Lee, D.-K., Niiler, P., Warn-Varnas, A., Piacsek, S., Wind-driven secondary circulation in ocean mesoscale (1994) J. Mar. Res., 52, pp. 371-396
  • Le Traon, P.Y., A method for optimal analysis of fields with spatially variable mean (1990) J. Geophys. Res., 95, pp. 13,543-13,547
  • Linder, C.A., Gawarkiewicz, G.G., Pickart, R.S., Seasonal characteristics of bottom boundary layer detachment at the shelfbreak front in the Middle Atlantic Bight (2004) J. Geophys. Res., 109
  • Longhurst, A., The Atlantic Ocean (2007) Ecological Geography of the sea, pp. 131-268. , in, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New Yor
  • Lutz, V.A., Segura, V., Dogliotti, A.I., Gagliardini, D.A., Bianchi, A.A., Balestrini, C.F., Primary production in the Argentine Sea during spring estimated by field and satellite models (2010) J. Plankton Res., 32 (2), pp. 181-195
  • Machado, I., Barreiro, M., Calliari, D., Variability of chlorophyll-a in the Southwestern Atlantic from satellite images seasonal cycle and ENSO influences (2013) Cont. Shelf Res., 53 (C), pp. 102-109
  • Matano, R.P., Palma, E.D., On the upwelling of downwelling currents (2008) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, pp. 2482-2500
  • Matano, R.P., Combes, V., Piola, A.R., Guerrero, R., Palma, E.D., Ted Strub, P., James, C., Saraceno, M., The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 7949-7968
  • McDougall, T.J., Barker, P.M., (2011), pp. 1-34. ,, Getting started with TEOS-10 and the Gibbs seawater (GSW) oceanographic toolbox,, SCOR/IAPSO WG12; McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr., Mechanisms of physical-biological-biogeochemical interaction at the oceanic mesoscale (2016) Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 8 (1), pp. 125-159
  • Miller, R.N., Matano, R.P., Palma, E.D., Shelfbreak upwelling induced by alongshore currents: Analytical and numerical results (2011) J. Fluid Mech., 686, pp. 239-249
  • Mitchell, B.G., Kahru, M., Bio-optical algorithms for ADEOS-2 GLI (2009) J. Remote Sens. Soc. Jpn., 29 (1), pp. 80-85
  • Moffat, C., Lentz, S., On the response of a buoyant plume to downwelling-favorable wind stress (2012) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42 (7), pp. 1083-1098
  • Morel, A., Berthon, J.-F., Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles, and potential production of the euphotic layer: Relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications (1989) Limnol. Oceanogr, 34 (8), pp. 1545-1562
  • Muller-Karger, F.E., The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle (2005) Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, p. L01602
  • Nagai, T., Tandon, A., Rudnick, D.L., Two-dimensional ageostrophic secondary circulation at ocean fronts due to vertical mixing and large-scale deformation (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, p. C09038
  • Nagai, T., Tandon, A., Gruber, N., Mcwilliams, J.C., Biological and physical impacts of ageostrophic frontal circulations driven by confluent flow and vertical mixing (2008) Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 45 (3-4), pp. 229-251
  • O'Reilly, J., Maritorena, S., Mitchell, B., Siegel, D., Carder, K., Garver, S., Kahru, M., McClain, C., Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS (1998) J. Geophys. Res., 103 (C11), pp. 24,937-24,953
  • Orsi, A., Whitworth, T., Nowlin, W., On the meridional extent and fronts of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (1995) Deep Sea Res., Part I, 42 (5), pp. 641-673
  • Painter, S.C., Poulton, A.J., Allen, J.T., Pidcock, R., Balch, W.M., The COPAS’08 expedition to the Patagonian Shelf: Physical and environmental conditions during the 2008 coccolithophore bloom (2010) Cont. Shelf Res., 30 (18), pp. 1907-1923
  • Palma, E.D., Matano, R.P., Piola, A.R., A numerical study of the Southwestern Atlantic Shelf circulation: Barotropic response to tidal and wind forcing (2004) J. Geophys. Res., 109, p. C08014
  • Palma, E.D., Matano, R.P., Piola, A.R., A numerical study of the Southwestern Atlantic Shelf circulation: Stratified ocean response to local and offshore forcing (2008) J. Geophys. Res., 113, p. C11010
  • Perez-Cenci, M., Caló, G.F., Silva, R.I., Negri, R.M., Salerno, G.L., The first molecular characterization of Picocyanobacteria from the Argentine Sea (2014) J. Mar. Biol., 2014 (1), pp. 1-8
  • Piola, A.R., Falabella, V., (2009) El Mar Patagónico. Atlas del Mar Patagnico, Especies y Espacios, pp. 55-75. , edited by, V. Falabella, C. Campagnay, J. Croxall, Wildlife Conserv. Soc. of BirdLife Int, Buenos Aire
  • Piola, A.R., Campos, E.J.D., Moller, O.O., Charo, M., Martinez, C., Subtropical Shelf Front off eastern South America (2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C), pp. 6565-6578
  • Piola, A.R., Romero, S.I., Zajaczkovski, U., Space–time variability of the Plata plume inferred from ocean color (2008) Cont. Shelf Res., 28 (13), pp. 1556-1567
  • Piola, A.R., Martínez Avellaneda, N., Guerrero, R.A., Jardón, F.P., Palma, E.D., Romero, S.I., Malvinas-slope water intrusions on the northern Patagonia continental shelf (2010) Ocean Sci., 6 (1), pp. 345-359
  • Piola, A.R., Franco, B.C., Palma, E.D., Saraceno, M., Multiple jets in the Malvinas Current (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, pp. 2107-2117
  • Podestá, G.P., Migratory pattern of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and oceanic processes in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (1990) Fish. Bull., 88 (1), pp. 167-177
  • Poulton, A.J., Painter, S.C., Young, J.R., Bates, N.R., Bowler, B., Drapeau, D., Lyczsckowski, E., Balch, W.M., The 2008 Emiliania huxleyi bloom along the Patagonian Shelf: Ecology, biogeochemistry, and cellular calcification (2013) Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27 (4), pp. 1023-1033
  • Pyper, B.J., Peterman, R.M., Comparison of methods to account for autocorrelation in correlation analyses of fish data (1998) Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 55 (9), pp. 2127-2140
  • Ricker, W.E., Linear regressions in fishery research (1973) Fish. Rese. Board Can., 30, pp. 409-434
  • Rivas, A.L., Quantitative estimation of the influence of surface thermal fronts over chlorophyll concentration at the Patagonian shelf (2006) J. Mar. Syst., 63 (3-4), pp. 183-190
  • Romero, S.I., Piola, A.R., Charo, M., Garcia, C.A.E., Chlorophyll-a variability off Patagonia based on SeaWiFS data (2006) J. Geophys. Res., 111, p. C05021
  • Saraceno, M., Provost, C., Piola, A.R., On the relationship between satellite-retrieved surface temperature fronts and chlorophyll-a in the western South Atlantic (2005) J. Geophys. Res., 110, p. C11016
  • Schloss, I.R., Ferreyra, G.A., Ferrario, M.E., Almandoz, G.O., Codina, R., Bianchi, A.A., Balestrini, C.F., Poisson, A., Role of plankton communities in sea-air variations in pCO2 in the SW Atlantic Ocean (2007) Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 332, pp. 93-106
  • Segura, V., Lutz, V.A., Dogliotti, A., Silva, R.I., Negri, R.M., Akselman, R., Benavides, H., Phytoplankton types and primary production in the Argentine Sea (2013) Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 491, pp. 15-31
  • Siedlecki, S.A., Archer, D.E., Mahadevan, A., Nutrient exchange and ventilation of benthic gases across the continental shelf break (2011) J. Geophys. Res., 116, p. C06023
  • Siedlecki, S.A., Mahadevan, A., Archer, D.E., Mechanism for export of sediment-derived iron in an upwelling regime (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, p. L03601
  • Signorini, S.R., Garcia, V.M.T., Piola, A.R., Garcia, C.A.E., Mata, M.M., Mcclain, C.R., Seasonal and interannual variability of calcite in the vicinity of the Patagonian shelf break (38 °S–52 °S) (2006) Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, p. L16610
  • Signorini, S.R., Garcia, V.M., Piola, A.R., Evangelista, H., Mcclain, C.R., Garcia, C.A., Mata, M.M., (2009), Further studies on the physical and biogeochemical causes for large interannual changes in the Patagonian Shelf spring-summer phytoplankton bloom biomass,, NASA Tech. Memo, Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Md; Song, H., Marshall, J., Follows, M.J., Dutkiewicz, S., Forget, G., Source waters for the highly productive Patagonian shelf in the southwestern Atlantic (2016) J. Mar. Syst., 158, pp. 120-128
  • Swart, S., Thomalla, S.J., Monteiro, P.M.S., (2015) J. Mar. Syst., 147, pp. 103-115. , The seasonal cycle of mixed layer dynamics and phytoplankton biomass in the Sub-Antarctic Zone A high-resolution glider experimen
  • Thomas, L., Ferrari, R., Friction, frontogenesis, and the stratification of the surface mixed layer (2008) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38 (11), pp. 2501-2518
  • Thomas, L.N., Lee, C.M., Intensification of ocean fronts by down-front winds (2005) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35 (6), pp. 1086-1102
  • Thompson, L., Ekman layers and two-dimensional frontogenesis in the upper ocean (2000) J. Geophys. Res., 105 (C3), pp. 6437-6451
  • Valla, D., Piola, A.R., Evidence of upwelling events at the northern Patagonian shelf break (2015) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, pp. 7635-7656
  • Vera, C., Interannual and interdecadal variability of atmospheric synoptic-scale activity in the Southern Hemisphere (2003) J. Geophys. Res., 108, p. 8077
  • Vivier, F., Provost, C., Direct velocity measurements in the Malvinas Current (1999) J. Geophys. Res., 104 (C9), pp. 21,083-21,103
  • Vivier, F., Provost, C., Meredith, M.P., (2001), 31, pp. 892-913. , Remote and local forcing in the Brazil–Malvinas region,, J. Phys. Oceanogr; Whitt, D.B., Levy, M., Taylor, J.R., Low- and high- frequency oscillatory winds synergistically enhance nutrient entrainment and phytoplankton at fronts (2017) J. Geophys. Res., 122
  • Zhang, W.G., Gawarkiewicz, G.G., McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr., Wilkin, J.L., Climatological mean circulation at the New England shelf break (2011) J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41 (10), pp. 1874-1893
  • Zhang, W.G., McGillicuddy, D.J., Jr., Gawarkiewicz, G.G., Is biological productivity enhanced at the New England shelfbreak front? (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, pp. 517-535
  • Zhang, Z., Hetland, R., Zhang, X., Wind-modulated buoyancy circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf (2014) J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, pp. 5705-5723


---------- APA ----------
Carranza, M.M., Gille, S.T., Piola, A.R., Charo, M. & Romero, S.I. (2017) . Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(3), 2401-2421.
---------- CHICAGO ----------
Carranza, M.M., Gille, S.T., Piola, A.R., Charo, M., Romero, S.I. "Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence" . Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 122, no. 3 (2017) : 2401-2421.
---------- MLA ----------
Carranza, M.M., Gille, S.T., Piola, A.R., Charo, M., Romero, S.I. "Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence" . Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, vol. 122, no. 3, 2017, pp. 2401-2421.
---------- VANCOUVER ----------
Carranza, M.M., Gille, S.T., Piola, A.R., Charo, M., Romero, S.I. Wind modulation of upwelling at the shelf-break front off Patagonia: Observational evidence. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans. 2017;122(3):2401-2421.